Respiratory diseases a term used to define the abnormal or unhealthy condition of our respiratory system, it includes nostril, nasal passage, wind pipe, bronchus, bronchioles and lungs, if one of them is abnormal in function means there is some problem with respiratory system.
Types of respiratory diseases:
Can be of 4 types
- Infectious respiratory diseases: Theses are also known as communicable respiratory disease since they are transmitted or communicated by simply respiration e.g if a person is infected with tuberculosis and he/she is sneezed in the air without keeping anything on his/her nose in such case water droplet of sneeze along with pathogen will go to the environment, from where pathogen can enter in new host during respiration. So it is an air born disease.
List of some infectious respiratory diseases and their causing agents
Tuberculosis- Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Pneumonia- Strptococcous pneumonia.
Bronchitis – Virus
Tuberculosis: A communicable or infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis a aerobic pathogen, couse infection of lung. The disease effect 1.8 billion people per year worldwide while in India 220,000 death are reported.
Prevention from Tuberculosis:
Infected person should be isolated in a room.
Extra care should be taken of personal hygiene and sanitization.
Prescribed drug should be given till the given time.
Traetment of Tuberculosis:
Many drugs and antibiotics are available in the market for the treatment f tuberculosis. E.g
World health organization recommend a programme for T.B. patient, known as DOTs-TB (Direct observed treatment short courses.)
- Allergic pulmonary diseases: a state of our body which show hyper sensitivity against a particular thing which resulted increment in secretion of histamine in blood. e.g. Asthma, Bronchitis etc. Material against which individual shows sensitivity is called allergen, this allergen can be dust, pollen, egg, fish, medicine, soft toys, and bed also.
- Lung cancer: Sometimes due to mutation in the DNA of alveoli, they starts producing itself enumerate amount due to which tumor is produce in the lung which is invasive and pathogenic.
Lung cancer is very harmful disease because its sign and symptoms take years to appear.
Causing agent of Cancer:
Smoking leads lung cancer.
Prevention from Cancer
Always avoid smoking and chewing gutka.
It can be treated by chemotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy or by combining them but it also depend on the level of infection if it is diagnose at early stage only then and there it can be treated.
- Genetic pulmonary disorder (Cystic fibrosis): A genetic disorder which occurs due to mutation in chromosome, which leads to the production of a thick layer of mucus which cause mainly a severe lung infection apart form this it also affect pancrease, kidney and liver.
Causes of Cystic fibrosis: Mutation in gene which codes for amino acid phenyl alanine, type of mutation is deletion type where the genetic code (triplet of bases i.e UUU) of amino acid (Phenylalanine) is deleted which is present at 508th position of the protein.
Symptoms of cystic fibrosis:
Persistence coughs with productive mucus.
Wheezing and shortness of breath.
Frequent chest infection.
Prevention from Cystic fibrosis:
It is a genetic disorder which cannot be prevented.