Tags Archives: Dengue


Dengue Fever: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention

As the monsoon season arrives, it brings relief from the scorching heat but also increases the risk of certain health issues, with dengue fever being one of the most prevalent mosquito-borne diseases during this time. This comprehensive guide aims to provide an in-depth understanding of dengue fever, including its symptoms, available treatment options, and effective preventive measures. By being aware of the signs, seeking timely medical attention, and taking necessary precautions, you can protect yourself and your loved ones from this potentially severe illness.

Section 1: Understanding Dengue Fever

1.1 What is Dengue Fever?

Dengue fever is a viral infection caused by the dengue virus, which is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. This disease is a significant public health concern, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions, where the Aedes mosquito population thrives. Dengue fever is characterized by flu-like symptoms and can range from mild to severe.

The dengue virus belongs to the Flaviviridae family and has four distinct serotypes: DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, and DEN-4. Each serotype has slight genetic variations, but they all have similar clinical manifestations. The presence of multiple serotypes makes dengue fever a unique and challenging disease to control.

1.2 Transmission and Lifecycle of Dengue Virus

The transmission of the dengue virus occurs through the bite of infected female Aedes mosquitoes, primarily Aedes aegypti. These mosquitoes become infected by feeding on individuals who have dengue fever during the viremic phase, which is the period when the virus is present in high levels in the blood. After an incubation period of 4 to 10 days, the infected mosquito becomes capable of transmitting the virus to another human.

The lifecycle of the dengue virus involves both the mosquito vector and human host. When an infected mosquito bites a human, it injects the virus into the bloodstream. The virus then replicates within various types of cells, including immune cells. This replication leads to viremia, which is the presence of the virus in the blood.

During the viremic phase, an infected individual can serve as a source of the virus for other mosquitoes. When a mosquito feeds on a viremic person, it ingests the virus along with the blood. The virus then replicates within the mosquito’s midgut and spreads to other tissues, including the salivary glands. Once the virus reaches the salivary glands, the mosquito becomes infectious, capable of transmitting the virus to humans during subsequent bites.

It is important to note that the Aedes mosquito has a short lifespan, typically around two weeks. This means that the virus must be transmitted efficiently from one mosquito to another and from mosquitoes to humans to maintain its circulation in the population.

Understanding the transmission and lifecycle of the dengue virus is crucial for developing effective control strategies. By targeting the Aedes mosquito population and interrupting the transmission cycle, it is possible to reduce the incidence of dengue fever. Public health interventions, such as vector control measures and community education, play a vital role in preventing the spread of this disease and protecting individuals at risk.

Section 2: Symptoms and Diagnosis of Dengue Fever

dengue-fever-symptoms, prevention & cure _Doctor online

2.1 Common Symptoms of Dengue Fever

Dengue fever presents with a wide range of symptoms, which can vary from person to person. It is essential to be aware of these symptoms to seek prompt medical attention and receive appropriate care. The common symptoms of dengue fever include:

  1. High Fever: Dengue fever typically begins with a sudden onset of high fever, often reaching temperatures of 104°F (40°C) or higher. This fever can last for several days.
  2. Severe Headache: Intense headaches, often described as a pounding sensation, are a common symptom of dengue fever. The severity of the headache may vary from person to person.
  3. Joint and Muscle Pain: Dengue fever is characterized by severe joint and muscle pain, often referred to as “breakbone fever.” This pain can be debilitating and make movement difficult.
  4. Rash: A rash may appear on the skin of individuals with dengue fever. It typically starts on the torso and spreads to the limbs, resembling a measles-like rash.
  5. Fatigue: Feeling extremely tired and fatigued is another common symptom of dengue fever. This fatigue can persist for several weeks after the fever has subsided.

It is important to note that while these symptoms are commonly associated with dengue fever, they can also be present in other illnesses. Therefore, it is crucial to consult a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis.

In some cases, dengue fever can progress to more severe forms, such as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) or dengue shock syndrome (DSS). These severe forms of the disease can be life-threatening. Symptoms of DHF and DSS may include severe abdominal pain, persistent vomiting, bleeding gums, rapid breathing, and a weak pulse. If you or someone you know experiences these symptoms, immediate medical attention is crucial.

2.2 Diagnosing Dengue Fever

To confirm a diagnosis of dengue fever, healthcare professionals utilize various diagnostic methods. These tests help identify the presence of the dengue virus or antibodies in the blood. The common diagnostic methods for dengue fever include:

  1. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR): This test detects the genetic material (RNA) of the dengue virus in a patient’s blood sample. PCR is a highly accurate method and can determine the specific serotype of the virus.
  2. Antibody Tests: Antibody tests detect the presence of dengue-specific antibodies in the blood. Two types of antibodies are tested: Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and Immunoglobulin G (IgG). IgM antibodies appear in the early stages of the infection, while IgG antibodies indicate a past infection or immunity.

It is important to note that diagnostic tests for dengue fever should be performed in a laboratory setting by trained professionals. Self-diagnosis or reliance on home test kits is not recommended, as false results can occur.

If you suspect you have dengue fever or are experiencing symptoms, consult a healthcare specialist  for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Early detection and management of dengue fever can significantly reduce the risk of complications and ensure a faster recovery.

Section 3: Treatment and Management of Dengue Fever

3.1 Medical Management

Early diagnosis and medical supervision play a crucial role in effectively managing dengue fever. If you suspect you have dengue fever or have been diagnosed with the illness, it is important to seek medical attention promptly. Your healthcare provider will closely monitor your condition and provide necessary guidance and support.

Supportive care measures are essential in alleviating symptoms and promoting recovery. These measures include:

  1. Rest: Adequate rest is crucial to allow your body to fight the infection and recover. It is important to avoid excessive physical activity, which can worsen symptoms and delay recovery.
  2. Hydration: Maintaining proper hydration is essential, especially during a dengue fever infection. Drink plenty of fluids, such as water, oral rehydration solutions, and electrolyte-rich beverages, to replenish lost fluids and prevent dehydration.
  3. Pain Relief: Dengue fever can cause severe joint and muscle pain. Over-the-counter pain relievers, such as acetaminophen (paracetamol), can help alleviate pain and reduce fever. Avoid non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen or aspirin, as they can increase the risk of bleeding.

In severe cases of dengue fever, hospitalization may be necessary for close monitoring and specialized care. This is especially true if you develop warning signs or severe symptoms, such as persistent vomiting, severe abdominal pain, bleeding, or difficulty breathing. In the hospital, healthcare professionals can provide intravenous fluids, manage complications, and ensure your condition is closely monitored.

3.2 Prevention of Complications

Monitoring vital signs and blood parameters is essential in detecting any signs of complications promptly. It is important to regularly check your temperature, blood pressure, pulse rate, and hematocrit levels as advised by your healthcare provider. Early detection of complications allows for timely intervention and management.

Dengue fever can lead to potentially serious complications, such as plasma leakage, organ impairment, and hemorrhage. These complications can occur in severe cases of the illness. If you experience any new or worsening symptoms, such as persistent vomiting, severe abdominal pain, bleeding from the gums or nose, or drowsiness, seek immediate medical attention.

3.3 Role of Medications

While specific antiviral medications or treatments for dengue fever are not currently available, supportive care remains the mainstay of treatment. Medications may be used to manage symptoms, such as pain relievers and antipyretics to reduce fever. However, it is important to consult your healthcare provider before taking any medications, as they can have potential side effects and may not be suitable for everyone.

In addition to medications, your healthcare provider may recommend certain precautions and lifestyle modifications to support your recovery. These may include getting plenty of rest, maintaining good hygiene, and avoiding mosquito bites to prevent further transmission of the virus.

Remember, it can be a serious illness, and it is important to follow the guidance of healthcare professionals for proper management and care. With early diagnosis, appropriate medical supervision, and supportive care measures, most individuals recover from dengue fever successfully.

Section 4: Prevention Strategies for Dengue Fever

4.1 Mosquito Control Measures

Effective mosquito control measures are crucial in preventing the transmission of dengue fever. By reducing mosquito populations and eliminating breeding sites, you can significantly lower the risk of contracting the virus. Here are some important measures to consider:

  • Eliminate Breeding Sites: Mosquitoes breed in stagnant water. Regularly check your surroundings for any potential breeding sites, such as uncovered water containers, flower pots, discarded tires, or clogged gutters. Empty, clean, or cover these sources of standing water to prevent mosquitoes from laying their eggs.
  • Use Mosquito Repellents: Apply mosquito repellents on exposed skin to ward off mosquito bites. Look for repellents containing DEET, picaridin, or oil of lemon eucalyptus. Follow the instructions on the product label for proper and safe application.
  • Install Window Screens: Use window screens or mosquito nets to prevent mosquitoes from entering your living spaces. Ensure that the screens are in good condition and free from any holes or gaps.

4.2 Personal Protection Methods from Dengue

In addition to mosquito control measures, personal protection methods can help minimize your risk of contracting dengue fever. Here are some important steps to consider:

  • Wear Protective Clothing: When venturing outdoors, especially during peak mosquito activity times (dawn and dusk), wear long-sleeved shirts, long pants, socks, and closed-toe shoes to minimize exposed skin.
  • Use Mosquito Nets: Sleeping under mosquito nets, especially treated nets, can provide an extra layer of protection against mosquito bites while you sleep.
  • Use Mosquito Repellents: Apply mosquito repellents on exposed skin and clothing, following the instructions on the product label. Reapply as needed, especially after sweating or swimming.

4.3 Community Efforts and Public Health Measures to Prevent Dengue

Preventing dengue fever requires collective efforts and community participation. Here are some community and public health measures that can help reduce the risk of dengue transmission:

  • Community Clean-up: Encourage your community to organize regular clean-up campaigns to eliminate mosquito breeding sites. This can include removing trash, clearing drains, and promoting proper waste management practices.
  • Public Health Initiatives: Local authorities often undertake initiatives such as fogging and larviciding to control mosquito populations. Support these efforts by cooperating with health officials and following their recommendations.

4.4 Travel Considerations to Avoid Dengue

If you are traveling to dengue-endemic areas, it is important to take precautions to avoid dengue fever. Here are some travel considerations:

  • Prevent Mosquito Bites: Use mosquito repellents containing DEET, picaridin, or oil of lemon eucalyptus. Wear long-sleeved shirts, long pants, socks, and closed-toe shoes. Sleep under mosquito nets, especially if accommodation lacks adequate protection.
  • Stay Informed: Stay updated on the local dengue situation in your travel destination. Be aware of any outbreaks or high-risk areas and take necessary precautions accordingly.
  • Follow Travel Advisories: Follow travel advisories issued by health authorities or your home country’s embassy. These advisories may provide specific recommendations and guidelines for preventing dengue fever.

Dengue fever is a significant health concern during the monsoon season, but with the right knowledge and proactive measures, its impact can be minimized. By understanding the symptoms, seeking early diagnosis, and following appropriate treatment, individuals can effectively manage the illness. Equally important are preventive measures such as mosquito control and personal protection methods, which can significantly reduce the risk of contracting dengue fever. Remember, individual efforts combined with community-wide initiatives play a crucial role in preventing the spread of dengue fever. Stay informed, stay protected, and enjoy a safe and healthy monsoon season.

6 years ago Health , Medical

Dengue Cure: Procedure, Cost And Side Effect | Dengue Treatment

Dengue is the vector-borne viral infection, regarded as a severe public health problem. It is transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegyptiDengue is considered as the major public health concern due to increase in the frequency of dengue fever over past three decades. Every year about 390 million dengue infections are reported where 70% of 96 million cases are reported in Asia.

See: 7 Ways to Protect Eyes in Summers

Early Signs and symptom of Dengue:

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  1. Chronic fever with any of the following conditions:
  • Rashes on skin
  • Body pain
  • Nausea with persistent vomiting
  • Mucosal bleeding
  • Abdominal Pain

 2.  Sometimes the disease became severe when the condition is asymptomatic lead to the life-threatening situation of organ impairment. 


Laboratory findings For Dengue

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  • Low platelet count below 100, 000 cells/mm3
  • Positive tourniquet test
  • Low WBC count


dengue symptoms, dengue cure, health tips,

Treatment of Dengue

  • Paracetamol is preferred to reduce fever but should be used with caution.
  • For the treatment of diarrhoeal disease oral rehydration solution is recommended.
  • Salicylates like aspirin should not be used as they increase the risk of bleeding.
  • In prolonged uncontrolled shock there will be intravascular coagulation which causes bleeding and may lead to the development of lethal shock.In such cases, early and effective replacement of plasma losses with fluid and electrolyte solution results in a favorable outcome.
  • Platelet transfusion is required when the platelet counts are below 20,000.
  • If patients show signs of shock, he will be under constant and careful observation where pulse, blood pressure and respiration should be recorded every 30 minutes.
  • Complete bed rest is advised until the recovery of the patient.

Cost of  the Dengue treatment

Corporate hospitals generally charge between in the range of Rs. 10,000 to Rs. 15,000 for the platelet separation. Since the costs of platelet transfusion are not regulated and thus private hospitals are free to charge as per their price. The Dengue Ns1 test cost varies in different parts of India between the range of Rs. 600 to Rs. 1200. So the total costs of dengue treatment lie in the range of Rs. 25000 to Rs. 75000 depending on the severity. The recovery rate and safety profile of dengue treatment is high with very low side effects.

Side effects of the Dengue treatment

There are no such side effects of the dengue treatment as the safety profile of the treatment is high. But some risks like low immunisation, too much dehydration, pain due to the chronic fever will be there.If the patients treated early with all the precautionary steps increases the recovery.

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6 years ago Medical

Diagnostic tests for dengue

The epidemic arbor viral disease “DENGUE “is caused by an infection with 1 of the 4 stereotypes of virus called Flavivirus. This arthoropod borne illness is predominantly transmitted by mosquitoes of genus Aedes ( Aedes albopictus , Aedes aegypti). Historically this illness was documented in the Chinese encyclopedia of symptoms during chin dynasty (CE 265 – 420). First outbreak of dengue has been recorded in 1635 in west indies , as the time flew  this illness became more epidemic gaining new names  in accordance with its occurrence (1779 – 1780) as “Break bone fever” in Asia, North America, Africa and ” Dandy fever” in regions of East Africa ( 1820).

Incubation period of dengue is 3 – 14 days and the symptoms may begin after the 2 weeks of transmission. Progression of this illness can be categorized into initial dengue in which symptoms like”Dengue triad “(Fever, headache, rash) can be seen and the severe dengue stage shows dengue hemorrhagic syndrome, dengue shock syndrome. Both of these severe stages include maculopapular rash on the skin, myalgia, vomiting, arthralgia, altered taste sensation, dehydration. Early detection of this disease is less harmful and can be cured effectively where as if left untreated may even lead to fatal risk of life, death.


Various sophisticated techniques have been developed these days which are more efficient in diagnosing it. Serological diagnosis has been cardinal in early stages of dengue in which the amount of antibody titers including IgM and IgG are checked in paired serum samples. Viral genome sequences in autopsy, serum, cerebrospinal fluid can be diagnosed using RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction). NS1 (Nonstructural protein) test along with Immunofluorescence essays like MAC –ELISA test are more popular in early detection of illness. In patients suspected with dengue significant low levels of WBC, neutrophils, and platelet counts are seen hence complete blood picture can rule this out. Hematocrit level are known to rise up to 20% hence for every 24 hours, these levels are to be monitored. Coagulation studies include testing prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin, fibrinogen levels. Ultrasonography is recommended to rule out the suspicion of pleural effusion and thickened urinary bladder in case of dengue hemorrhagic fever. In case of early coagulation guaiac testing is done followed by typing and cross matching of blood ( In dengue shock syndrome ) .Complete urine examination tests , CSF test , should be done in order to exclude or confirm patient condition of body fluids .Biopsy of skin lesions may reveal any abnormality in blood vessels. Head computed tomography is performed to check any intra cranial bleeding in case of dengue hemorrhagic fever. PRNT (plaque reduction neutralization test) is used to determining the type of stereotype of virus causing dengue in which the serum sample is diluted with viral suspension and the amount of plaque formation units are measured. This quantifies titer of neutralizing antibodies for a virus.

7 years ago Health

Monsoon diseases; Prevention and cure

Have you ever wondered why you have been suffering from a lot of diseases especially during the monsoon? Monsoon is the time when you tend to suffer from most upsetting diseases. If you fail to take care at the right time, then it is normal that you will suffer for a longer duration. This is the time when the germs & infections will attack you the most and you feel more sick and endangered.

The monsoons can prove to be a health menace as there are various diseases that come along with the rains. Monsoon is also the time when you suffer from most general health disorders. And for this reason, it is better to know some of the quick remedies and treatments for you to recover sooner.

We all love rain. Kids and Teenage individuals are more happy to enjoy the rain and they are also at increased risk of being affected by a variety of diseases and other serious health disorders. This is also the season when airborne & water borne diseases easily attack the individuals.

Cold, flu, dengue, water infection, food infection, cholera, and leptospirosis are some of the most common monsoon diseases. Leptospirosis is a condition that is caused by bacteria which carried by either a man or an animal. These conditions can severely affect the kidneys, causes liver failure, respiratory problems, meningitis, etc. these are some of the incurable diseases that can make you feel really sick and takes quite a long time for complete recovery.

How to treat fungal diseases?

You are at a greater risk of suffering from fungal infections during the rainy seasons. It is advisable to keep your body dry especially during these times. Keep those parts of your body that tend to get sweatier in time. The areas between two toes, areas behind your knees and elbows are the ones that tend to get sweatier easier.  You can make use of anti-fungal powder as this will help in soaking the sweat at specific areas. If you feel your condition gets worse over time and the infection spreads throughout your skin then it is advisable to consult a physician.

Dengue-the most common monsoon disease:

The most notorious monsoon disease carried by the Aedes mosquito which is a daytime biter, is the dengue. Dengue is the most common monsoon disease and its germs are often carried by mosquitoes. Most of us have a chance of suffering from dengue during the monsoon seasons. Some of the usual symptoms of this disease are body ache, joint pains, body rashes & fever.


  • You might develop high fever within 4 to 7 days of the mosquito bite.
  • Skin rashes
  • Muscle & joint pains
  • Pain behind the eyes
  • Loss of appetite
  • Bleeding gums

The mosquito that is responsible for causing dengue is the tiger mosquito.  So some of the preventive measures to protect yourself from being affected by dengue include, applying mosquito repellents creams all over your body, wear clothes that fully cover in order to prevent the mosquito from biting.

Typhoid- the usual monsoon disease

One of the common monsoon diseases is typhoid. This is mainly caused due to the consumption of unclean water. It is mainly due to consumption of food & water contaminated by bacteria Salmonella typhi. This bacteria can survive in water or sewage for several weeks and usually enters the body through faeco-oral route. This is why you should ensure that the water and food that you intake should be free from contamination. Improper sanitation can also cause this disease. When you suffer from typhoid, you will suffer from fever, headache, sore throat, pain and general illness.


The best way to stay protected is to wash your hands well before eating. Do not eat food and water that are not of best quality. Avoid street side foods during this season as these foods will not be hygiene and can increase the risk of food or water borne diseases.


Cholera being the most common monsoon disease is not just a diseases, it is a deadly ailment that will make you suffer at your worst. You are at high risk of suffering from cholera if you don’t practice right hygiene habits as they are mostly caused by contaminated food & water. It is spread through food & water contamination by human feces & is swiftly carried away by flies and thus is common in areas of poor sanitation. Though it can be easily cured, it might turn deadly if left untreated. It is best to drink clean food & water and it is essential for you to stay healthy and clean always.


  • ¨ Severe diarrhea or constipation
  • ¨ Vomiting or nausea
  • ¨ Dehydration
  • ¨ Muscle cramps due to dehydration
  • ¨ Rapid weight loss
  • ¨ Low blood pressure
  • ¨ Loss of skin elasticity.
  • ¨ Dryness in the inside of the mouth, eyelids, & nose


Jaundice is yet another common monsoon disease that you are about to suffer from during rainy seasons. It is a viral disease and is caused by contaminated food & water. The common symptoms of suffering from jaundice are that you will feel extremely weak and the color of your urine changes to dark yellow. You may also develop a tendency of vomiting and improper functioning of the liver. It is best to drink boiled water and avoid eating foods from roadside streets & shops. This is the time you need to consume plenty of water and this will help your body fluid to stay absolutely normal.


Malaria is one of the severe diseases which were an issue of the epidemic a few years ago. Malaria is carried by female anopheles mosquito, which is an evening and early morning biter. These days the treatments for malaria have improved so much and people are finding ways to recover sooner.


  • Severe fever within 72 hours of the bite
  • Body ache, sweating and cold symptoms
  • Symptoms of diarrhea & jaundice

Water logging and breeding of mosquitoes are quite common during the monsoon season. One may be affected by malaria prone mosquitoes during the rainy seasons.


Once the summer season is gone, the weather condition improves & become soothing. This triggers us to have spicy foods. But, we fail to think of the water-borne diseases that spread during the monsoons. Water-borne diseases are common during the monsoons. Hence, you must be really careful with the food that you consume during the rainy seasons. It is better to avoid street foods as the chances of spreading diarrhea are more common with this.

Viral fever:

Viral fevers have become more common these days. Viral fever is the most common medical sign that is characterized by an elevation in temperature above the normal range of 36.5-37.5 degree Celsius. In fact, viral infections are more common than bacterial infections. It is common to see your kids suffering from viral fevers during the rainy seasons. Sometimes, these fevers may last for a few weeks. This is an indication that your child is suffering from viral infection. You must be very careful about your child’s eating habits and other day to day activities. This will make you feel feeble and weak.


  • Fatigue
  • Joint pains
  • Running nose or nasal congestion
  • Diarrhea
  • Cough or a sore throat
  • Burning sensation in eyes
  • skin rashes

Viral infections are caused by invasions of various diseases causing viruses into the host’s body. These infections have the ability to affect various parts of the body at the same time. The humidity that occurs during the rainy season makes it easier for the infections to be carried from one person to another. These infections majorly affect those people with weak immune system.

Eye infections:

Eye infections caused by viruses are mild and usually resolve on their own. It includes conjunctivitis often called as pink eye. This affects the membrane that lines the inside of the eyelids & the eyelid margins.


  • Gritty feeling in the eyes
  • Swollen eyelids
  • Irritation in the eyes
  • Itching of the eyes
  • Discharge from both eyes
  • Chances of blood clots around the corner


  • ¨ Avoid junk foods & maintain a hygienic diet.
  • ¨ Take plenty of fluids
  • ¨ Detect early signs of weakness to begin treatment
  • ¨ Keep yourself clean & hygiene
  • ¨ Make sure you wash your hands with effective disinfectant before bringing in contact with the eyes as it might cause infection
  • ¨ Carry a sanitizer and apply it before the meals

Fungal infections:       

Fungal infections are caused by a fungus, a type of microorganisms. Specific areas of the skin such as areas under the armpits and spaces between the two toes often remain moisture, especially during the monsoons. These become ideal grounds for such infections.


  • Peeling, cracking, and scaling of the skin
  • Redness of the skin
  • Formation of blisters
  • Softening or breaking down of the skin
  • Itching, burning, or both



  • ¨ Keep your body dry.
  • ¨ Change wet undergarments and switch to cotton ones, as they allow the skin to breathe well
  • ¨ Wear sandals to air your feet
  • ¨ Allow damp hair to dry before you tie them again
  • ¨ Bathe twice a day and add a few drops of lemongrass, Neem or mint extracts to your bath water to fight against fungal infections

8 years ago FirstAidPlus , Medical

Avoid Aspirin in Dengue or Chikungunya

Dengue or Chikungunya both are the viral fever known to be adversely affecting (lowering) the platelets count. Low platelet count can result into bleeding from eyes, nose, alimentary canal which may sometimes prove fatal.

Aspirin (Disprin) is an over the counter pain killer commonly used for pain and fever. However, the lesser known fact is that aspirin is also a blood thinner which reduce the platelet count. This is often prescribed in old age to prevent stroke and heart attack.

When a patient suffering from Dengue or Chikungunya takes aspirin, the platelet count which is already on the lower side due to the infection, gets further reduced because of the medicine. This may complicate the health condition causing severe bleeding and posing as a threat to life.

Avoid Aspirin in Dengue or Chikungunya

During the season of dengue or chikungunya, when someone develops a fever one should avoid the medicines like aspirin. Instead, paracetamol (Crocin) is the drug of choice. Paracetamol should be taken to reduce the fever and lessen the body ache. Under no circumstances, aspirin should be taken.

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