Tetanus is caused by the bacterium CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI which exists in the soil in the form of spores . In the absence of oxygen these spores become active and release the toxin tetanospasmin causing tetanus or lock jaw .
Tetanospasmin is a neurotoxin that interferes with nerves that control muscle movements affecting brain and nervous system .
The bacteria enters the body through cuts , wounds , burns etc. and cause infection leading to tetanus which is treated by using tetanus vaccine .
➢ Bloody stools or diarrhoea
➢ Tachycardia (rapid heartbeat)
➢ Tetanic seizures
➢ Acute renal failure
The vaccine is given as follows :
Generally the tetanus vaccine is given in 5 shots
➢ 1st shot is given at the age of 2 months
➢ 2nd shot is given at the age of 4 months
➢ 3rd shot is given at the age of 6 months
➢ 4th shot is given at the age of 15-18 months
➢ 5th shot is given at the age of 4-6 years
Then the 1st booster is given at the age of 11-18 years and another booster for every 10 years
The vaccine is administered alone or can be administered with the combination of vaccines against diphtheria and pertussis which is generally termed as DPT vaccine.
TIG (Tetanus Immunoglobulin) can be administered as soon as possible even after vaccination which provides immediate short term protection against tetanus . TIG can be safely administered to pregnant and breast feeing mothers .
8 Early Warning Signs of Kidney Damage Most People Ignore
Major function of kidneys
There are but a few blood purifiers and these are all in the body. We know them as the liver, lungs, kidneys and few glands!
Kidneys are the vital organs of body which act as a unit of filtration. They have various functions to play:
- Filtration of blood to flush out the toxic wastes.
- Maintain the electrolyte balance of sodium, potassium and water at constant.
- Secrete various essential hormones one such hormone is renin which regulates the blood pressure.
So the main function of kidney is to remove the excess waste out of our body and defects of kidneys can cause waste accumulation. The imbalance of electrolytes causes the condition of water retention. Kidneys maintain our blood pressure this is the reason why major patients suffering from kidney diseases also have the risk of alter blood pressure.
Kidney diseases are called “quiet diseases “as they silently affect your health and due to lack of symptoms many people did not get to know about them. Sometimes due to negligence many people ignore the early signs of kidney diseases.
8 Early warning signs of kidney damage
- Puffiness or swelling: This is the earliest and most detectable symptom of alteration in kidney functions. We have discussed earlier that kidneys regulates the water retention and removal of toxic fluids. Defects in the kidneys causes the fluid retention which further causes inflammation or pitting edema. Parts which exceptionally get affected are ankle, legs, and face.
- Change in urination: Association of urination and kidneys is integrated. Early signs of risk are mostly associated with the abnormality of urination. Changes are as follows:
- Difficulty and burning while urination
- Urine with strong odour and much darker colour
- Inconsistency of urine with froth and bubbles
- Haematuria or blood in urine
- Frequent urination majorly during night
- Change in the output of urine in 24 hours
3.Fatigue: You’ll feel tired, weak and there will be loss of appetite. This mainly due to the hormonal disturbances of erythropoietin which is secreted by kidney. Erythropoietin produces red blood cells and reduced production of red blood cells due to hampered kidney results in weakness and fatigue more than the normal days.
4.Dry and itchy skin: In kidney diseases skin become dry and itchy. As kidneys maintain the fluid concentration of the body and purifies blood by removal of harmful toxins. So, if the toxins are not flushed out they remain under the skin and causes breakouts such as acne, dry and rough skin. These can be the signs of early defects in kidney.
5.Flank or lower back pain: There will be complaint of severe lower back pain or may be around the sides of the back. The intensity of pain is very high and unbearable. Doctors sometimes associate this flank pain with the kidney or bladder stone.
6.Metallic taste in mouth: Due to intensification of the toxic waste and protein accumulation you will feel metallic taste in your mouth.
7.Nausea and vomiting: When the toxic wastes get accumulated people feel nauseated rather than usual days. This also leads to decreased appetite.
- Low concentration levels and dizziness: Any defect in kidney function results in low count of blood cells. This leads to the increased risk of anaemia and lower oxygen supply to the brain. All this causes trouble in concentrating, memory loss and sometimes dizziness.
These were some initial signs of kidney diseases which should not be ignored and one should consult the doctor as early as possible after noticing any of these symptoms.
Is pneumonia contagious?
To answer this question, first let us get to know what pneumonia really is.
Pneumonia is the irritation ( a kind of swelling or inflammation) of the lung tissue generally, however, not only brought on by infection from bacteria, viruses or fungus. It makes the air sacs in the lungs load with pus. When it influences both the lungs, the disease is termed as double pneumonia. While if it influences one lung, it is named as single pneumonia. In the event that it influences just a specific projection of a lung, it is named lobar pneumonia.
Most pneumonias are brought about by viruses and bacteria, however a few pneumonias are created by breathing in poisonous chemicals that harm the lung tissue. Pneumonia can lead to fever, chills, cough, and make it difficult to breathe. Serious pneumonia can even asphyxiate you to death.
Is Pneumonia Contagious?
Pneumonia in itself cannot spread from one person to another. But the germs that cause it can.
Truth be told, you don’t get pneumonia: You get the germs that cause it.
You can get the germs that cause pneumonia in the most widely recognized of spots, and so it all depends on the type of environment you live in. The places you visit consistently may add to your vulnerability to the illness.
For instance, kids in school or childcare centres can without much of a stretch contract infections from each other, which makes them more inclined to viral pneumonia.
All in all, viral pneumonias are more contagious than bacterial and fungal ones. That is on the grounds that viruses probably spread from individual to individual. So they pose a much greater threat.
A few sorts of pneumonia are contagious just in specific situations.
For instance, Legionnaires’ disease, which is brought on by Legionella pneumophila bacteria, may just be infectious for individuals breathing in impure air from an adulterated air conditioning system.
What are the various ways that can end you up with pneumonia?
The germs that can afflict you with pneumonia are typically breathed in. Individuals regularly have some measures of germs in their nose and throat that can be passed on to someone else through air:
1. When people cough and sneeze, these dispatch little beads of liquid full of germs into the air, which another person can take in.
2. When a person with these germs touch an object around them, they usually happen to transfer their germs onto that object. When another person touches the same object and after that touches his own mouth or nose, he has those germs transferred within him.
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Sinus infection is medicinally known as sinusitis, and is majorly caused when your nasal cavities wind up noticeably swollen and inflamed.
Usually it is a virus infection that results in sinusitis. It frequently holds on even after other respiratory symptoms are no more. In uncommon cases, bacteria or fungus may bring about a sinus infection. Various other causes such as allergies, nasal polyps, an infected tooth and a deviated septum can additionally lead to sinusitis.
There are two major types of sinus infections : chronic and acute.
Chronic versus Acute
Acute sinusitis only goes on for a brief timeframe. It generally occurs because of a cold or some kind of allergies. Chronic sinus infection keeps going on for over atleast two months or keeps on recurring.
Numerous sinusitis side effects are normal to both chronic and acute infections. Seeing your specialist is the most ideal approach to learn that you have a contamination, to discover the exact cause, and to get an appropriate treatment.
Pain is the most widely recognized side effect of sinusitis. You have a few diverse sinuses above and underneath your eyes and also behind your nose. Any of these can cause you pain when you have a sinus contamination.
If there is inflammation and swelling, then they may cause your sinuses to hurt with some pressure. You may feel your forehead hurts or either side of your nose is in pain, or there is torment even in your upper jaws and teeth, or between your eyes. This may prompt a migraine.
How would you protect yourself from getting a sinus infection?
Maintaining a strategic distance from things that can potentially irritate your nose and sinuses can help counteract sinusitis. Tobacco smoke, chemicals in cleaning supplies, or known allergens are all various triggers that can make you catch sinusitis.
Wash your hands much of the time, particularly amid the season of allergies, to keep your sinuses from getting irritated or tainted by bacteria that your hands carry.
In case you’re oversensitive to something that causes sinusitis, you may need to look for allergic immunotherapy shots or a comparative treatment.
How to calculate safe period to avoid pregnancy?
When do you ovulate ?
Ovulation is the point at which a developed egg is discharged from the ovary, pushed down the fallopian tube, and made accessible in the fallopian tube for fertilisation.
Following your ovulation
Calculate the length of your normal menstrual cycle. The very beginning is the principal day of the menstrual period and the last day is the day preceding the restart of the next period.
Ovulation occurs around two weeks before the following expected period. So if your normal menstrual cycle is of 28 days, your ovulation occurs around day 14.
Keep in mind the ‘fertile period’ is the six days paving the way to ovulation, including ovulation.
The three days paving the way to and including ovulation are the most ripe. Contingent upon your cycle length the most fertile days in the cycle differ:
In the event that you have 28 days between periods ovulation ordinarily occurs on day 14, and the most fruitful days will be days 12, 13, and 14.
On the off chance that you have longer cycles, say 35 days between periods, ovulation occurs on day 21 and the most fruitful days will be days 19, 20, and 21.
In the event that you have shorter cycles, say 21 days between periods, ovulation occurs on day 7 and the most prolific days will be days 5, 6, and 7.
How would you know you’re ovulating?
The cycles of different women can differ and are not really regular, so to realize that you are ovulating and find out on which day of your cycle you ovulate, watch your fertility signs all through your cycle. It would be much better if you record them on a chart.
The best techniques for working out when ovulation is going to happen are:
Watch out if your mucus is any different than regular. During the period of ovulation, you may see your vagina’s mucus is clear, smooth and slippery. This is the best indication that ovulation is really happening.
Get an ovulation predictor kit. You can begin testing with this kit a couple days before your evaluated day of ovulation. Subtract 17 days from your normal cycle length and begin testing from this day of your cycle, e.g. on the off chance that you have a 28 day
cycle, you would begin testing from day 11. A positive outcome implies you will ovulate in the following 24 to 36 hours.
Make sure to record your basal body temperature (BBT) every day getting up. An exclusive basal body temperature thermometer will guarantee precise estimation. Your BBT ascends by half a degree Celsius after ovulation has happened. By diagramming your temperature, it’s anything but difficult to see when the ascent in temperature and ovulation happens. In light of the fact that at this stage ovulation has already passed, it does not find you the fertile window for now, yet, may manage you for one month from now.
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STROKE- SYMPTOMS, TREATMENT, AND PREVENTION
Stroke or a brain attack is a condition that occurs when there is inadequate blood supply to the brain. Due to decreased blood flow and lack of oxygen in the brain, the brain cells begin to die off eventually. Stroke can be classified into 2 main categories:
Due to blockage of blood flow: Ischemic stroke, which is due to the blockage of a blood vessel in the neck or brain, is the most frequent cause of a stroke. About 80% of the stroke cases are a result of blockage of the blood These blockages arise due to 3 conditions:
- Thrombosis, which is the formation of a clot within the blood vessel in the neck or brain.
- The movement of the clot from other parts of the body such as heart to neck or brain
- Stenosis, a severe narrowing of an artery in or leading to the brain.
Due to bleeding: Hemorrhagic stroke, which is the bleeding into the brain or spaces surrounding the brain causes the second type of stroke.
Symptoms of a stroke:
The following are certain signs and warning that you have high chances of getting a stroke.
- ¨ Sudden falls or brief unconsciousness
- ¨ Unexplained dizziness
- ¨ Sudden weakness or numbness on one side of the arm, leg or face
- ¨ Abrupt loss of vision, strength, coordination. Speech and ability to understand speech. These symptoms become worse over time.
- ¨ Sudden dimness of vision, especially in one eye.
- ¨ Sudden loss of balance accompanied by vomiting, nausea, and difficulty in swallowing.
F.A.S.T test is usually taken to confirm if the patient is actually affected by stroke.
F means face- if one side of the face droops it’s a possible sign of stroke.
A means arm- if the person is not able to stretch out both arms then again it’s a possible sign of stroke.
S means speech- if the person is not able to understand simple sentences then again it’s a possible sign of stroke.
T means time- if any of the FAS signs are positive then its TIME. The T in FAST test also means the longer the brain is blocked from the blood supply, the greater is it’s damage caused. Usually, the patient affected by stroke should be treated within 3 hours.
What causes a stroke?
A condition called atherosclerosis may occur due to deposition of fats, cholesterol, calcium and other substances which narrow the blood vessel making it easy for the clots. This reduces the blood flow to the brain. As a result, the brain suffers from a lack of oxygen and nutrients. Some people may experience only a temporary disruption of blood flow to the brain. This is called transient ischemic attack (TIA).
TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK (TIA):
A transient ischemic attack (TIA) also called as mini stroke will have the similar symptoms of a stroke but for a brief duration only. TIA lasts for less than 5 minutes. TIA may also occur due to a clot or blockage that reduces the blood flow to part of the brain. Unfortunately, it’s not possible to detect if the patient is undergoing a TIA or a stroke.
RISK FACTORS OF STROKE:
Stroke may certainly lead a person to have a severe heart attack. The following are some of the risk factors:
- High cholesterol
- High blood pressure
- Obstructive sleep apnea
Other associated risk factors include:
- People above 5 years of age
- Personal or family history of stroke
- Men have higher chances of being affected by stroke than women.
- African-Americans have a higher risk of stroke than people of other race.
COMPLICATIONS OF STROKE:
The complications of stroke may be severe or mild depending on how long the brain lacked proper blood flow and also which part of the brain was affected. The complications may include:
- Paralysis or loss of muscle movement
- Difficulty in walking or swallowing
- Loss of memory and thinking abilities
- Difficulty in controlling their emotions
- Pain, numbness or strange sensations in parts of the body.
- Changes in behavior and self-care ability.
PREVENTION OF STROKE:
A stroke prevention is about maintaining a healthy lifestyle which helps to fight stroke every single day. In addition to preventing stroke, these actions will also help one to lead an energetic and peaceful life.
- A healthy eating habit will help live a long run. Trans fat is a type of fat that contributes to stroke and is easy to identify it’s presence in food.
- Even modest exercise has been proven to help prevent stroke.
- Choose physical exercises that are enjoyable for you.
- Make efforts to maintain a balanced weight. Obesity or underweight is a risk factor for
- Avoid smoking as that also increases the chances of stroke.
Apart from all this ensure you lead a happy life. One should be able to balance your emotions well that will have a greater impact on your psychological health.
Beauty tips for Summer
Beautiful skin is the attire and desire of every women! Every attire is to be taken care of and this is very true with beautiful skin as well. A special care is needed for the skin during the summer seasons. It’s already summer and it is high time you need to protect your skin from the harmful rays of the sun. The UV rays are more intense during the summer season and if you go out in the sun without proper protection then the scorching heat will adversely affect your skin. Exposure to UV radiation for a long time can turn your skin texture into the rough, dull and dark skin. At the same time, it is not practically possible for us to spare time in our busy schedule for the beauty tips and care. I’m pretty sure this article is going to help you a lot with simple beauty tips especially for summer to protect your skin and retain it is glow forever!
1) HYDRATING: hydrating is a must in order to have a beautiful skin. It keeps you healthy as well.
DRINK PLENTY OF WATER: 70% of our body is made up of water. Water not only keeps the body
hydrated but also removes toxins from the body thereby keeping it healthy.During the summers, the body loses most of the water via sweat and therefore there is an increased need for water in the body during summer.As the water helps to remove toxins from the body, it keeps the skin healthy and glowing.
2) CLEANSING: the first and most important beauty tip is cleansing. Wash your face several times with water, as it will remove the dirty and sweat. You can even try cleansing with the following face packs.
HOME-MADE FACE PACKS FOR SUMMER:
BANANA face pack: Are you tired of complaining about your dry skin during summers?? Here is a rescue remedy just for you! Make a paste out of banana and milk and apply it on your face for 15-20 minutes. Allow it to dry and wash it off with cold water. It leaves you with soft and glowing skin. It also helps to retain moisture level in your skin.
CUCUMBER face pack: The raw cucumber contains 95% water. Blend a half Cucumber and 1 tablespoon of yogurt in a mixer and apply it on your face.Let it dry for 15 minutes. You will get a smooth, supple and glowing skin.You can also take equal proportions of cucumber and watermelon juice and apply it on your face and neck. Leave it for 15 minutes and wash off with cold water.
EGG face pack: Egg does wonders on your body! Be it your hair or skin, egg works magically on both! It is the most effective beauty tip for both hair & skin. Add one egg white to table spoon of lemon juice and apply it on your face for 20 minutes and rinse with lukewarm water. You’ll feel a lot fresh and alive! It helps to get rid of oily skin.
3) EXFOLIATING: The second most important beauty tip is exfoliating your skin. If you are over exposed to the polluted environment, then you should exfoliate at least 2-4 times a week. Scrubs are important exfoliating agents.
Using scrubs can remove the dead skin from your body. Face scrubs using oatmeal are effective!
Raw-oatmeal scrub: you can use raw oatmeal to exfoliate your skin. Use it thrice a week for better results. It leaves you fresh and alive.
Milk-oatmeal: to the raw oatmeal, you can add milk to it. Milk oatmeal scrubs works better for normal to dry skins.
Yogurt-oatmeal: to the raw oatmeal, you can add yogurt to it. Yogurt oatmeal does wonder for the oily and acne prone skin.
4) TONING: toning is also very important for your skin, especially during summers. During summers, you may use a rose or lavender tonic for your skin. One may also use a rose skin toner to refresh your skin. Rose skin
toner is suitable for normal to dry skin. People with oily or acne prone skin cause astringents instead of skin toners.
5) SUN PROTECTION: PREVENTION IS BETTER THAN CURE! It is very important to protect our skin from the sun’s harmful radiations. Use umbrellas, sunglasses whenever you reach out to the sun. Don’t forget to apply sunscreens (with SPF at least 30)when you go out in the sun.
6) HEALTHY DIET: Though we make many efforts to protect our skin from the outside, healthy eating habits can help us to have a healthy skin from the inside. Eat a lot of fruits & vegetables rich in water content. Eat a lot of
calcium rich food (dairy products) as calcium can as a lot of calcium may be lost in sweat. Ensure your diet contains a lot of vitamin E (nuts & almonds)to have a glowing skin.Using the above tips, can you help you maintain a healthy skin even during the summers! There’s no need to get panic. Just drink a lot of water and healthy foods and avoid going out in the scorching heat, especially in the afternoons as the intensity of heat is the highest!
How touch can shape babies’ brain development?
Touch is a sense fundamental for social and emotional associations. A tender touch can have a significant effect. And a study has suggested that for infants, skin-to-skin contact with parents and guardians may help shape how their brains react to touch.
Earlier too, skin-to-skin touch has been linked with formative advantages for both premature and full-term babies, extending from enhanced development and growth to better sleep.
But premature babies – who pass up a major opportunity of sensory experiences of late gestation – indicate distinctive brain responses to delicate touch from babies that stay inside the uterus until term. This could influence later physical and emotional development, however regular skin-to-skin contact from parents and hospital facility staff appears to neutralize the impact.
Newborn babies who are conceived early experience dramatic events even while babies that aren’t conceived until 40 weeks are yet developing in the amniotic liquid. Premature babies are most of the time isolated from their folks for long stretches, endure agonizing procedures like operations and ventilation, and they encounter greater impacts of gravity on the skin and muscles.
This can cause long-term alterations in infant brain development.
Infant development, particularly in the initial couple of months, is vigorously moulded by touch and sound, as the visual system is still extremely immature. Touch is a path for babies to find out about their environment and an early approach to speak with their folks.
Puff of air
To evaluate how infants respond to touch Researchers exposed some newborns to a light puff of air and a “fake” puff of air and analysed their brain responses. They found that the babies who were in the neonatal intensive care unit and spent more time in delicate contact with parents and caregivers responded more strongly to touch than the preterm infants who didn’t get this gentle contact.
So, you should promote gentle touch for all newborns and especially premature babies. This will help them develop building blocks needed for thinking, behaviour and communication skills, later in life.
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Is cervical cancer caused by a virus?
Is cervical cancer caused by a virus?
Yes, cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV (Human Papilloma Virus). To explain you a bit more clearly about HPV, let’s first begin with the very basic definition of cervical cancer.
What is cervical cancer?
Cervical cancer starts in the cells of the cervix, the part of the uterus that leads to the vagina.
What causes cervical cancer?
Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. This virus causes changes in the cervix cells. HPV is not the same as HIV.
What you mostly need to be cautious about is that HPV spreads through sex. Condoms do not offer you full protection from HPV, but they can help hold back other infections so it is better to always have safe sex.
Most of the time, the infection HPV causes in the cervix, doesn’t last for a long time. Your body is able to fight this kind of infection. But in some women, it lasts longer. And that can change cervix cells into pre-cancer cells. These pre-cancer cells are not cancer, they go back to their normal stages on their own in some time, in most cases. If they don’t, they can be treated. But if they aren’t found and treated, they can potentially turn into cancer. But do not worry, cervical cancer can also be treated if it’s found. Also, very few HPV infections cause cervical cancer. Most women who get HPV do not essentially get cervical cancer.
You need to get your tests for cervical cancer regularly, and the chances would be then less likely. You may have a greater chance of getting cervical cancer if you have HPV and it doesn’t go away, or if you have HIV or AIDS, or also if you smoke.
There are no symptoms for HPV, but you should get PAP tests done to figure out if there are changes in your cervix cells. Ther are no treatments for HPV, mostly the infection goes away on its own. But if it doesn’t and there are changes in the cervix cells, and that shows up in PAP tests, you need a proper treatment plan for the same. So get regular PAP tests done every 3 or 5 years. Being aware is being safe and healthy.
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5 Quick and easy home remedy for migraine
The stressful lifestyle and improper rest has lead many on the way to headaches. Headaches have become a common problem of the modern times that stems out of a variety of causes. The worst of them being migraine! According to the World Health Organization, it is one of the most disabling conditions worldwide. It is characterized by a throbbing and excruciating pain which is more often than not related to one side of the head and gets worse and can last for up to 72 hours. However, the symptoms change from person to person.
The common migraine symptoms include pounding headache, nausea, vomiting, and light sensitivity. And it is generally treated with anti-nausea drugs and abortive or preventive medications that include pain relievers. And the worst thing is they are recurrent and in such conditions taking painkillers so often can be harmful and can have side effects on the body.
There comes the need of natural home remedies to cure the pain and to avoid the powerful and harmful medicines and antibiotics. Here are 5 best home remedies that are natural and safe and that would take care of the nasty pain as well!
- Apple Cider Vinegar:
An apple a day does keep a doctor away! There’s nothing better than having an apple a day, it is the house of wonder and so is apple cider vinegar. You just need to mix half a cup of apple cider vinegar with half a cup of water and boil it in a covered pan. And then take the steam. This is known to provide instant relief. Else, have an apple with some salt sprinkled over it followed by warm water. Or add one to two teaspoons of apple cider vinegar to a glass of water with honey and lemon juice and drink it once or twice a day!
The wonder herb is also good for headaches as well! Its oil is a known muscle relaxant and is really helpful for headaches. Or you can simmer 3-4 fresh basil leaves in water and drink the tea by adding honey to it. They are really good if chewed or inhaled as steam after boiling it in water.
- Lavender Oil:
Lavender is not merely the sweetest smelling flower it has some beneficial properties hidden as well! Lavender oil can be either inhaled or applied topically. Two to four drops for every two to three cups of boiling water are recommended for inhaling the steam. Unlike many medicinal oils, it can also be safely applied externally without diluting it.
Ginger is like the brand ambassador of headache treatment. And many people are relieved by the ginger tea only! Or mix equal parts of ginger juice and lemon juice and drink it once or twice a day. You can also apply a paste of ginger powder and 2 tablespoons water on your forehead for a few minutes to provide quicker relief. Ginger helps quell the nausea that often accompanies migraines.
- Chamomile tea:
Chamomile tea with honey (optional) is the simplest remedy for headache or migraine headache. It helps ease pain and relax you.