Introduction: Immunization is a process in which our immune system is strengthens by giving some antigenic preparation (vaccine) to our body. In other words it can also be define as the process to provide immunity to our body is known as immunization while vaccination is a term used for introduction of vaccine in body. Immunity is the term used for the ability to fight against diseases. Some people get confuse that vaccination and immunization both are the same word but they are different terms.
For kids it is very important to immunize them time to time to fight against diseases, as they always have weak immune system due to undevelop organ or undevelop immune system. Sometimes immunization also depends upon gender e.g some vaccines are given to girl child at the age of 11. Some adult are vaccinated in the age of 60s to prevent the diseases like Chicken-pox as it is more invasive in adult in comparison to child. In the case of some diseases one time immunization is sufficient while in some other cases 2-3 doses are recommended.
Immunization is of two types:
- Active immunization
- Passive immunization
Active immunization: It involves the immune system generates its own specialized defence cells and antibodies to fight off the infection and pathogen. This approach of immunization takes longer time because it needs to generate the right response, it also teaches the immune system to remember how to respond to the germ if it is reencountered in the future. In this type of immunity the work and response of memory cells increases because the memory cells are responsible for reencounter of pathogen. Most of the vaccines given to either to adult or kids are working on this principle. This type of immunity works for long time. Basically defense cell works in this manner in the case of vaccination, because vaccines are attenuated pathogen or killed pathogen and when they enter in the body they are recognize as foreign particles by immune syste and our immune system start working against them, since the pathogen is attenuated or killed so they can not harm the individual and easily our immune system works on that.
Working of active immunity: when our body firstly encounters with any foreign particle or pathogen or antigen(vaccine) it starts producing antibody against antigen or foreign particles. Along with this one special type (memory cell) of cell is produced which save the type of antigen in its memory, when the body encounter second time with the pathogen or foreign particle or antigen it starts producing antibody against them efficiently and then killed them.
Passive immunization: It involves direct introduction of antibiotics and antibody in the body, which works against infection, pathogen as well as other diseases. It does not work on the principle of memory cell.
Immunization works efficiently in the entire organism either it is human being or its animals.eg. dog. Human gets immunization to prevent the diseases while animals are vaccinated to reduce their pathogenic effect on human being.