Introduction: X rays are the electromagnetic radiation of high energy, means they have high frequency and less wavelength, they have high penetration power, they can cross thick aluminium foil. It was discovered by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen in 1895 when he was working with cathode ray tube. Study of X-ray is known as radiology.
Production of X-ray: They are produced by excitation of electron from anode material in a x ray tube containing cathode.
Properties of X-ray:
- X ray can be absorved by or can be scattered by a human tissue.
- They always follow straight line path.
- X rays have no mass.
- They are used for the production of biofilm.
- They are invisible to eye , they cannot be heard and cannot be smell.
- They can produce mutation in biological tissue.
- They produce ionization in the molecules.
Image formation by x rays in medical science:
x–rays are produced in vacuum tubes by bombarding a metal target with high-speed electrons and images produced by passing the resulting radiation through the patient’s body on to a photographic plate or digital recorder to produce a radiograph or a picture of defected part.
Application of x ray:
- X rays are used for the detection of fracture (minor or major) in our body.
- It is also used for the detection of skeletal pathology.
- It is also used for the detection of pathological condition or defects in soft tissues.
- It is used for medical imagine, also in the study of nuclear medicine.
- It is also used for the treatment of various diseases known as radiotherapy.
- It is also used for dental radiography to diagnose the problems of oral cavity.
- It help us to know about target drug delivery system.
- Use in the production of 3D structure of any given molecule, by xray diffraction technique.
- It is also use to study the structure of very small molecule known as x ray microscopy.
- X ray astronomy is used for the detection of celestial object.
- Also used in airport security.
Harmful effect of x ray:
It is carcinogenic and mutagenic announced by world health organization as it has been found in many research that excess doses of x rays are carcinogenic. To reduce the adverse effect of x rays some doses are prescribed for different body parts which are as follow for bone marrow (red), gonads and uterus the limit is 50mSv/year, for Adrenal gland, Bladder, Brain, Breast, Small intestine, Large intestine, Kidney, Liver, Lung ,Muscles, Oesophagus, Pancrease, Spleen, Stomach and Thymus it should not exceeded for 150mSv/year, for bone surface and thyroid it should be 300mSv/year and for ankles, feet, forearms, hands and skin it should be 300mSv/year.
Protection against radiation: only that part of body should expose to the x ray which is required rest of the part can be protected by using thick shield of aluminum. Always ask for alternative option from your physician always avoids unnecessary examination of body thus one can prevent the adverse effect of x rays and a lethal disease called cancer.