The kidney is the vital organ of our body. It helps in the filtration and clearance of all the waste from our body. It also helps in elimination of filtered residues in the body. The kidney is constantly in a phase of filtration and elimination of minerals, toxins and other process residues from the blood and in turn, create urine. Hence any kidney absorbability is tested for urine and blood. Presence of blood or pus cells in the urine is an indication that the renal tubules might be damaged. Excessive use of drugs increases the load on the kidney, thus reducing the clearance rate.
Following are some tests mentioned which help in the complete analysis of the kidney functions.
- Serum creatinine: Creatinine is a waste product produced from the normal functioning of the muscles. A creatinine level higher than 1.2 for women and 1.4 for men is a sign of kidney in-functionality. As the kidney is more damaged, the level rises. Patients having the meal with meats, have the higher protein content, the level may rise.
- Glomerular Filtration Rate(GFR): measures the rate at which kidneys eliminate waste from the body and excessive fluid from the blood. GFR value less than 60, is a sign of reduction in kidney functionality. If it goes below 15, the kidney is probably in the last test of disease, needs immediate treatment.
- Blood Urea Nitrogen(BUN): as nitrogen is a breakdown product from protein foods, it is essential for us to know the concentration in the blood. The normal range is n7-20. As the kidney starts failing, the BUN values increases, meaning the kidney is not able to eliminate nitrogen from the body.
- Ultrasound: used for checking atrophy or any size-related anomalies in the kidney. Majorly due to damage or traumatic effect.
- CT Scan: checks for any structural abnormalities, like obstructions caused or any tissue damage. This is related to the disease associated with the kidney.
- Done for many reasons like for identification of specific disease stages and check the treatment response
- Check the anatomical damage occurred to the nephrons
- To check the kidney after transplant for any resistance developed n the recipient’s body
- Urinalysis: done by dipstick, it changes colours according to the presence of abnormalities like the excess amount of protein, pus, bacteria and sugar. The presence of pus may be due to damage to the bladder, urinary tract. Other infections like chronic kidney disease, diabetes can be detected.
- Urine protein: to check the excess amount of protein present in the urine. It is a quantitative measurement done to also check the albumin-to –creatine ratio.
- Microalbuminuria: the higher level of dipstick test, used for detecting small amounts of albumin protein in the urine. Done by patients who are at a higher risk of developing chronic diseases like diabetes or blood pressure
- Creatine clearance: measures the clearance rate of the kidney and wastes eliminated per minute.