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4 years ago Health , healthy , Skin Care

Skin Pigmentation Disorder| How to Diagnosis it with Home Remedies!

What is Skin Pigmentation?

Skin Pigmentation is just the regular shade of the skin. The reason individuals have distinctive skin shading and shade is a direct result of melanocytes which are the cells that are in charge of the generation of melanin. Melanin is the shade that is in charge of giving the skin, hair and eyes their shading. It additionally assists with the control of warmth, shields the body from UV radiation and gives corrective variety. The elements that influence the sum and circulation of melanin are hereditary qualities, endocrine framework and the earth.

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What are Skin Pigmentation Disorders?

Skin pigmentation issue adjusts the shade of the skin. This is caused by harm or variation from the norm of the cells that make melanin. Pigmentation issue can influence the entire body or just fixes of skin. On the off chance that the body creates excessively melanin, the skin winds up darker like on account of pregnancy and sun presentation. On the off chance that it makes too little melanin, the skin winds up lighter like on account of vitiligo.

Skin Pigmentation, Skin, Pigmentation, skin care, Skin Pigmentation disorder, treatment, causes

[su_heading size=”20″ margin=”10″]Types of Skin Pigmentation Disorders[/su_heading]

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UV introduction causes a higher creation of melanin in the body. Be that as it may, there are additionally different variables that can increment or diminishing melanin creation. For the most part, there are two sorts of pigmentation variations from the norm that can happen which are:

Hyperpigmentation – this is when melanin generation is higher than typical, which causes the presence of dark-coloured or tan spots on the skin. It is likewise called melasma.

Hypopigmentation – this is when melanin creation is lower than typical, which causes the presence of lighter patches of skin. It is additionally called vitiligo.

Albinism – this is an uncommon and acquired issue that is described by the entire or in the complete absence of melanin when contrasted with the pigmentation of the patient’s skin and guardians. Individuals with albinism have fair skin, pink eyes, and white hair.

Shade misfortune from skin harm – at times after a consume, ulcer, rankle or contamination, the skin doesn’t supplant a portion of the color in the influenced region.

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What are the Causes of Skin Pigmentation Disorders?

There is still no reasonable clarification of why skin color issue happen. Be that as it may, some skin color issue like albinism has a specific reason; it is an acquired latent quality. Hypopigmentation spots in association with vitiligo can be because of damage like a cut. Studies show that the light fixes of vitiligo don’t contain melanocytes, which are in charge of making melanin. A few specialists trust that vitiligo might be an immediate aftereffect of an immune system scatter. It has even been connected to conditions like Addison’s ailment and hyperthyroidism, which are associated with the adrenal organ.

Skin Hyperpigmentation can be caused by a scope of variables like poor nourishment and damage. There is even a mental disorder that makes a habitual need scratch which results to dim, rugged skin. The cover from melasma might be because of fluctuating hormone levels however it generally vanishes after the lady conceives an offspring.

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Here are the unmistakable reasons for pigmentation issue:

1. Warmth – an excess of sun introduction to warm is among the most widely recognized natural reasons for pigmentation. It bothers the cells in charge of pigmentation. Indeed, even warm radiation can influence melanocytes simply like UV radiation which can cause Hyperpigmentation.

2. Damage – is a few cases after an injury from damage mends, there will be some irritation which can later form into pigmentation.

3. Prescription – there are sure medications that can cause skin pigmentation as an unfavourable impact when they are utilized amid treatment. The issue generally leaves once admission is halted.

4. Illnesses – there are likewise maladies that can cause skin staining including jaundice and cyanosis. In jaundice, the skin winds up yellowish yet in cyanosis, it turns pale blue due to inadequate oxygen in the blood.

5. Passionate pressure – there are a few cases wherein extraordinary enthusiastic pressure can cause an adjustment in melanin creation.

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Skin Pigmentation Disorder Symptoms and Signs

The side effects and indications of skin pigmentation issue are either obscuring or helping of the skin. It can influence the entire body or simply certain zones.

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How is Skin Pigmentation Disorder Diagnosed?

There are distinctive analytic tests for particular skin pigmentation issue. Be that as it may, specialists and dermatologists can ordinarily analyze skin pigmentation issue through physical examination and by taking a careful medical history of the patient. For vitiligo, a visual exam is generally all that is required for determination. Other skin pigmentation issue may require blood tests and eye exams. For conditions like a skin disease or lichen simplex chronicus, a biopsy might be directed to think about the skin under a magnifying lens. A few doctors additionally utilize a dark light test, wood’s light or different gadgets to analyze a skin condition.

Treatment For Skin Pigmentation Disorders?

There are particular medicines for various skin pigmentation issue. For Albinism, patients are encouraged to conceal, utilize sunscreen and however much as could be expected to keep away from sun introduction with a specific end goal to anticipate skin disease. They likewise need to wear defensive eyewear or potentially remedy remedial focal points. For visual impedances, the medical procedure might be required.

For Vitiligo, patients are recommended a blend of photosensitive pharmaceuticals and bright light treatment to obscure light spots. In the event that the patient has de-pigmented patches that influence the greater part of the body, skin fading operators like monobenzone might be utilized for a more uniform appearance of the skin. There are additionally restorative concealers that can be utilized however skin uniting is another alternative.

For Hyperpigmentation issue, there are skin helping creams that can be utilized. Patients are additionally encouraged to dodge the sun. In the event that the issue is associated with poor sustenance, a dietician might be required for guiding. For individuals with lichen simplex chronicus, topical creams, as well as antihistamines, might be endorsed to quit tingling. For pigmentations or moles that are suspicious, specialists may need to carefully evacuate it with a specific end goal to avert skin growth.

Beauty care products can be utilized to quickly level out skin tone and conceal dull or light spots. There are tinted creams, establishment and other corrective items that can be utilized as a brief answer for skin pigmentation issue. There are additionally home cures that are shabby and safe wherein every single regular fixing are utilized for skin pigmentation issues. For instance, lemon can be utilized on dim spots since it is a powerful fading operator. Other regular lighteners incorporate nectar, onion, drain and Aloe Vera. In any case, a few people are delicate to certain normal cures which can result in the bothering of the skin.

Read: Easy Way to Remove Tan at home!

Skin Pigmentation diet, Skin Pigmentation, Skin, Pigmentation, Skin Pigmentation disorder, diet for Skin Pigmentation,

Are Skin Pigmentation Disorders Triggered by Diet?

Poor nourishment can be one of the reasons for Hyperpigmentation. There are likewise sure sustenances that are known to quicken skin obscuring. For instance, nourishments like celery, limes and parsnips contain psoralens which assemble on the skin and pull in unsafe bright beams subsequently quickening obscuring of the skin. On the off chance that you have repeating dull spots on the face or neck, there is a plausibility that it is associated with such sustenances. Devouring these sustenances may not by any means uncover the skin yet contact with the skin surely can. Skin obscuring can likewise be caused by caffeine however just when devoured in expansive amounts. A solid, very much adjusted eating routine can be useful in counteracting skin pigmentation issue.

Tips to Prevent Skin Pigmentation Disorders

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  • Shield yourself from the UV beams of the sun by wearing suitable attire and utilizing sunscreen.
  • Eat a sound, all around adjusted eating regimen.
  • Be watchful with the drug you are taking. On the off chance that you see any adjustments in the shade of your skin in the wake of taking new medications, converse with your specialist about it.
  • Oversee worry since it can at times cause pigmentation issues.
  • Be cautious of an excessive amount of introduction to warm since it can aggravate the cells that create melanin.

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Skin Pigmentation, home remedies, skin, skin care, health, problems, treatment, diet,

Simple and Affordable Home Remedies to Get Rid of Skin Pigmentation

The distinctive substance peels, over the counter medications or salon medicines, may guarantee to offer speedier outcomes, however, the impact only occasionally keeps going long and in addition to these medicines are very costly. These are similar variables that make the home cures more compelling and the most favoured as well. Likewise, home cures are protected and join the utilization of regular and reasonable fixings.

  • Potato confront pack

Potato is known to be a standout amongst the most strong and normal fixings to cure skin pigmentation or to help the imperfections and dull spots. Potato is a rich wellspring of Vitamin C, riboflavin and iron. This rich vegetable even contains the chemical catecholase, which helps in helping the skin tone.

  • Tomato, Oatmeal and Yogurt Face Mask

Tomatoes are wealthy in lycopene, which shields the skin from hurtful bright beams of the sun, in this manner shields the skin from pigmentation.

The grainy surface of oats can be utilized as a characteristic cleaning operator, which will bring about lighter and brighter skin tone.

Yoghurt is wealthy in lactic corrosive, which is again a characteristic fading operator and aides in helping the skin tone.

  • Apple Cider Vinegar Cleanser

Apple juice vinegar contains astringent properties, which helps in helping the skin tone and additionally decreases the dim patches and pigmentation.

Rules and Regulations of Skin Pigmentation

  • Anticipate Skin Pigmentation Disorders
  • Do utilize sunscreen every day, notwithstanding amid overcast days since UV beams can enter mists and cause hyperpigmentation.
  • Try not to expect that outcomes from skin helping items or different medicines are lasting in light of the fact that hyperpigmentation is a long haul flight that requires support.
  • Do utilize protected and viable items that are clinically demonstrated. On the off chance that you are uncertain, get some information about a specific item before utilizing.
  • Try not to utilize skin helping items with possibly destructive fixings. Research is critical since there are numerous risky fixings in skin helping items like those that can harm the skin or increment skin malignancy chance.
  • On the off chance that you think you are having any skin pigmentation issue, counsel a skincare proficient as quickly as time permits with a specific end goal to decide the reason and get the correct treatment.
  • Do take after a solid and very much adjusted eating regimen wealthy in cancer prevention agents and supplements.

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4 years ago Health , healthy , Medical

8 Syphilis Symptoms in Women that are up terrifying: Causes & Treatment

What is Syphilis?

It is a rare sexually transmitted disease caused by bacterium Treponema pallidum. This disease is treatable by a medical professional. It is spread through sexual activity and transmitted during pregnancy or at childbirth from infected mother to her Baby.

This disease is more common in men than women. In India about less than 1 million people suffer from syphilis.

This disease progresses in four stages. With symptoms, one can know the particular stage of illness. Sometimes symptoms do not show up in the same order. 1st stage or the primary stage can be treated with One Penicillin injection.

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Syphilis, Syphilis symptoms, causes, treatment, help

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Four stages of Syphilis are the Primary stage, secondary stage, latent and tertiary stage.

  • In Primary stage, symptoms show up after 3 to 10 months of the exposure to the bacteria. In this stage, the person notices small, painless sore or chance on the skin. Which will heal by itself in 3 to 6 weeks? You will notice that lymph nodes near your groin are enlarged.
  • In the second stage, which starts from 2 to 10 weeks of the appearance of sore. You will develop a skin rash, sores in mouth, anus and vagina. A person may also notice fever, weight loss, hair loss,  headache, muscle ache, fatigue and swollen glands. These symptoms disappear without treatment and will return for about a year.
  • Latent syphilis occurs when the secondary stage of syphilis is left untreated. In this stage, symptoms are hidden and the patient will be able to spread the disease.
  • Tertiary syphilis appears after 10 to 30 years after initial infection. In which person experiences neurological problems, stroke, numbness, deafness, visual problems, blindness, personality changes, dementia, heart valve disease, aneurysm, inflammation of blood vessels.

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syphilis, syphilis symptoms, treatment, causes, health care,

Here are 8 Symptoms which will help you identify Syphilis illness
and get treatment in early stages:

Chancre or Sores:

In the first stage, you may start noticing small painless sores at the site of infection. They may occur in vagina, anus, rectum and mouth. They don’t hurt, you may not even know that you have a sore. The first stage lasts for 3 to 6 weeks. They are firm, fluid-filled sacs  They are larger than a pimple. They heal without treatment and the infection enters into the second stage.

Fever:

You get a low-grade fever which won’t last long. Fever may occur at any stage of this illness. There may be other reasons for your fever. So don’t panic and look for other symptoms for confirmation of this disease or contact a physician.

Skin Rashes:

In the Secondary stage which starts after 2 to 10 weeks after the appearance of first sore you Amy notice small, rough red bumps which are not itchy. When you see those rashes on your palms of hands or soles of your feet or anywhere else on your body. It means that the bacteria is travelling through blood and affecting parts of the body other than the first site of exposures.

Sores in Mouth, Vagina or Anus:

Large raised, painless, grey or white sore appear in areas like mouth,  underarms or groin. This sight secondary stage symptom. These can be sometimes misdiagnosed with other illnesses. Therefore, when you notice these sore / chancre you better contact your physician.

Hair Loss and Weight Loss:

Usually, in secondary stag,e women find patchy bald spots on the scalp. There may be several other reasons for hair loss like hormonal changes,  medications,  medical conditions. Other symptoms are also considered along with hair loss to confirm this illness.

Other symptoms like weight loss, headache, muscle ache, sore throat, fatigue which disappear without treatment can be seen in the secondary stage.

Unclear Vision:

When syphilis untreated and reaches the tertiary stage, an infected person experiences severe neurological problems.  One of them includes Ocular Syphilis where an optic nerve in the brain is affected which leads to fuzzy vision or permanent blindness.

Neurosyphilis:

Syphilis can invade nervous system at any stage of infection and causes headache, altered behaviour, paralysis, dementia and sensory deficiency. This invasion of the nervous system is called Neurosyphilis.

Syphilis in Pregnant Women

All pregnant women must be diagnosed with syphilis at first prenatal visit. Untreated syphilis leads to infant death in 40% of cases. If the infected baby is born alive with no signs and symptoms of this disease. Baby should be treated immediately or baby will develop serious problems within few weeks.

If syphilis in babies is left untreated they become developmentally delayed, have a seizure or die. In pregnant women, only effective ( 98% successive rate ) way of treatment is penicillin therapy which cures syphilis and passing the disease to the baby.

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4 years ago Health , healthy

Top Monsoon Diseases: Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

Storms not just revive all living being from the searing summers yet, in addition, carry with it a lot of ailments. Rainstorm is the time when you have a tendency to experience the ill effects of most irritating maladies. On the off chance that you neglect to take mind at the opportune time, at that point it is ordinary that you will languish for a more extended term. This is the time when the germs and diseases will assault you the most and you feel more wiped out and imperiled.

Top Monsoon Diseases:

Here we are listing some of the major diseases that monsoon brings every year, most of them are not chronic but may lead to being if ignored.

  • Cold
  • Caugh
  • Malaria
  • Dengue
  • Stomach Infection
  • Diarrhea
  • Fever
  • Typhoid
  • Pneumonia

We as a whole love rain. Children and Teenage people are more cheerful to appreciate the rain and they are likewise at expanded danger of being influenced by an assortment of sicknesses and different genuine wellbeing issue. This is likewise the season when airborne and water-borne illnesses effectively assault the people.

monsoon, diseases, causes, prevention, health, care, tips, help

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Top Monsoon Diseases Causes

Cold, influenza, dengue, water contamination, nourishment contamination, cholera, and leptospirosis are probably the most well-known rainstorm sicknesses. Leptospirosis is a condition that is caused by microscopic organisms which conveyed by either a man or a creature. These conditions can seriously influence the kidneys, causes liver disappointment, respiratory issues, meningitis, and so forth these are a portion of the hopeless infections that can influence you to feel extremely wiped out and sets aside a significantly long time for finish recuperation.

How to treat Parasitic Sicknesses?

You are at a more serious danger of agony from parasitic diseases amid the stormy seasons. It is prudent to keep your body dry particularly amid these circumstances. Keep those parts of your body that have a tendency to get sweatier in time. The zones between two toes, territories behind your knees and elbows are the ones that have a tendency to get sweatier simpler. You can make utilization of against parasitic powder as this will help in absorbing the sweat particular territories. On the off chance that you feel your condition deteriorates after some time and the contamination spreads all through your skin then it is prudent to counsel a doctor.

Dengue: The most well-known Storm Ailment

The most infamous storm ailment conveyed by the Aedes mosquito which is a daytime biter is the dengue. Dengue is the most widely recognized rainstorm ailment and its germs are regularly conveyed by mosquitoes. A large portion of us has a shot of affliction from dengue amid the rainstorm seasons. A portion of the standard manifestations of this infection is body hurt, joint agonies, body rashes, and fever.

Indications of Dengue:

• You may build up a high fever inside 4 to 7 days of the mosquito nibble.

• Skin Rashes

• Muscle and joint torments

• Pain behind the eyes

• Loss of craving

• Bleeding gums

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The mosquito that is in charge of causing dengue is the tiger mosquito. So a portion of the preventive measures to shield yourself from being influenced by dengue incorporate, applying mosquito anti-agents creams everywhere on your body, wear garments that completely cover so as to keep the mosquito from gnawing.

Typhoid: The typical storm illness

One of the normal storm illnesses is typhoid. This is mostly caused because of the utilization of unclean water. It is primarily because of utilization of nourishment and water tainted by microscopic organisms Salmonella typhoid. This microscopic organism can make due in water or sewage for a little while and more often than not enter the body through the fecal-oral course. This is the reason you ought to guarantee that the water and sustenance that you admission ought to be free from defilement. Shameful sanitation can likewise cause this malady. When you experience the ill effects of typhoid, you will experience the ill effects of fever, migraine, sore throat, agony and general ailment.

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The most ideal approach to remain ensured is to wash your hands a long time before eating. Try not to eat nourishment and water that are not of best quality. Maintain a strategic distance from roadside sustenances amid this season as these nourishments won’t be cleanliness and can build the danger of sustenance or water-borne maladies.

Cholera:

Cholera being the most widely recognized rainstorm ailment isn’t only an infection, it is a fatal infirmity that will influence you to endure even from a pessimistic standpoint. You are in high danger of anguish from cholera in the event that you don’t rehearse right cleanliness propensities as they are generally caused by sullied nourishment and water. It is spread through nourishment and water pollution by human defecation and is quickly diverted by flies and this is normal in territories of poor sanitation. Despite the fact that it can be effortlessly cured, it may turn fatal if left untreated. It is best to drink clean sustenance and water and it is basic for you to remain solid and clean dependably.

Indications of Cholera:

• The severe looseness of the bowels or stoppage

Vomiting or Queasiness

Dehydration

• Muscle issues because of lack of hydration

• Rapid weight reduction

• Low pulse

• Loss of skin versatility.

• Dryness in within the mouth, eyelids, and nose

Jaundice:

Jaundice is yet another normal rainstorm ailment that you are going to experience the ill effects of amid stormy seasons. It is a viral malady and is caused by debased sustenance and water. The regular indications of anguish from jaundice are that you will feel to a great degree frail and the shade of your pee changes to dim yellow. You may likewise build up an inclination of spewing and shameful working of the liver. It is best to drink bubbled water and abstain from eating sustenances from roadside boulevards and shops. This is the time you have to devour a lot of water and this will help your body liquid to remain completely ordinary.

Intestinal sickness:

Intestinal sickness (Malaria) is one of the extreme ailments which were an issue of the scourge a couple of years prior. Jungle fever is caused by female Anopheles mosquito, which is a night and early morning biter. Nowadays the medicines for jungle fever have enhanced so much and individuals are discovering approaches to recoup sooner.

Manifestations:

• Severe fever inside 72 hours of the nibble

• Body throb, sweating, and cool side effects

• Symptoms of the runs and jaundice

Waterlogging and rearing of mosquitoes are very regular amid the storm season. One might be influenced by jungle fever inclined mosquitoes amid the blustery seasons.

The Runs:

Once the mid-year season is gone, the climate condition enhances and end up alleviating. This triggers us to have hot sustenances. However, we neglect to think about the water-borne illnesses that spread amid the rainstorm. Water-borne sicknesses are basic amid the storms. Consequently, you should be extremely watchful with the nourishment that you devour amid the stormy seasons. It is smarter to dodge road sustenances as the odds of spreading loose bowels are more typical with this.

Viral fever:

Viral fevers have turned out to be more typical nowadays. Viral fever is the most well-known therapeutic sign that is described by a height in temperature over the typical scope of 36.5-37.5 degree Celsius. Truth be told, viral diseases are more typical than bacterial contaminations. Usually to see your children experiencing viral fevers amid the blustery seasons. Here and there, these fevers may keep going for half a month. This means your youngster is experiencing viral contamination. You should be exceptionally cautious about your youngster’s dietary patterns and one more everyday exercises. This will influence you to feel weak and feeble.

Side effects of Viral Fever:

  • Fatigue
  • Joint torments
  • Running nose or nasal clog
  • Diarrhea
  • A hack or a sore throat
  • Burning sensation in eyes
  • skin rashes

Viral contaminations are caused by attacks of different ailments causing infections into the host’s body. These diseases can influence different parts of the body in the meantime. The mugginess that happens amid the blustery season makes it less demanding for the diseases to be conveyed starting with one individual then onto the next. These contaminations significantly influence those individuals with the feeble safe framework.

Eye diseases:

Eye diseases, for example, conjunctivitis, regularly called the pink eye is caused by infections. These are mellow and more often than not resolve individually. This influences the film that lines within the eyelids and the eyelid edges.

Indications

• Gritty feeling in the eyes

• Swollen eyelids

• Irritation in the eyes

• Itching of the eyes

• Discharge from the two eyes

• Chances of blood clusters around the bend

Precautionary measures:

• Avoid garbage sustenances and keep up a sterile eating routine.

• Take a lot of liquids

• Detect early indications of shortcoming to start treatment

• Keep yourself clean and cleanliness

• Make beyond any doubt you wash your hands with successful disinfectant before acquiring contact with the eyes as it may cause contamination

• Carry a sanitizer and apply it before the suppers

Contagious contaminations:

Contagious contaminations are caused by a growth, a kind of microorganisms. Particular regions of the skin, for example, territories under the armpits and spaces between the two toes regularly remain dampness, particularly amid the rainstorm. These wind up the perfect reason for such contaminations.

Side effects:

• Peeling, breaking, and scaling of the skin

• Redness of the skin

• Formation of rankles

• Softening or separating of the skin

• Itching, consuming, or both

Safety measures

• Keep your body dry.

• Change wet underpants and change to cotton ones, as they enable the skin to inhale well

• Wear shoes to air your feet

• Allow moist hair to dry before you tie them once more

• Bathe two times every day and include a couple of drops of lemongrass, Neem or mint concentrates to your shower water to battle against contagious contaminations

To know more insights about the rainstorm sicknesses, their cure and counteractive action sign on to www.freedoctorhelpline.com or call us at +91-8010555444.

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4 years ago Medical

Diagnostic tests for HIV/AIDS

HIV/AIDS also called as Human immunodeficiency virus/Acquired immune deficiency syndrome. One of the most dangerous STD’s, significantly challenging the gobal world with its devastating effects.HIV is caused by the “LENTI”virus[a class of retrovirus].HIV virus mainly acts on the imunne system of the body,by attacking the CD4 cells.Destruction of these cells results in the loss of defensive actions aganist various types of infections.Over the time,HIV leads to AIDS[Accquired immune deficiency syndrome]. If HIV is left untreated,it leads to AIDS stage.Well,early detection of the infection,using appropriate diagnostic tests helps the patients to live longer with the infection, without reaching to the AIDS stage.

The diagnostic tests for HIV includes;ELISA,westernblot test,polymerease chain reaction,[NAT test].ELISA is the primary test for HIV detection,if it is found to be positive,then western blot test is preffered for the further confirmation.If the ELISA is negative,then the individual should be retested again after a month.While PCR is a technique used to detect virus in the body,which is accurate method.Some of the other tests include antigen tests,antigen-antibody combinations.

 

ELISA:

Enzyme linked immune sorbent assay,was the first diagnostic test employed for the HIV. It has a high sensitivity.It involes the immune system component i,e.antibodies[igG,igM].Firstly serum from the person is collected,and it is diluted upto 400 folds.The diluted serum is applied on the plate to which HIV antigens are attached.If the person is having HIV antibodies,they may bind to the antigens.Then the plate is washed to remove the all other serum components.”SECONDARY ANTIBODY”-an antibody that binds to the human antibodies itself,is applied to the plate followed by another wash.This secondary antibody is chemically linked to enzyme.Thus the secondary antibody bound to the plate is in proportion with the enzyme on the plate.A substrate is added for the enzyme,and the catalysis by the enzyme leads to fluorescene or in colour of the substances.The most controversial aspect of this test is determining the”cut-off” point between a positive and negative result.

 

WESTERN BLOT:

Similar to the ELISA,western blot is also an antibody detection test.But unlike ELISA, first the viral proteins are separated and immobilised.Binding of serum antibodies to specific HIV proteins is visualised.

Specific cells of HIV infection are opened and the proteins within are palced into a slab of gel,to which the electric current is applied.Different proteins have different speeds, depending on their size.While the electric charge is levelled by a sodium lauryl sulphate, surfactant. Once the proteins are well separated,they are transferred to the membrane and the further process is continued similar to ELISA.The diluted serum is applied to the membrane and the antibodies in the serum may attached to the the HIV proteins.Antibodies that are not attached are washed away,where as the enzyme linked antibodies attaches to the secondary antibodies and determines to which HIV proteins the person is having antibodies.Commercially prepared western blot test kits contains the HIV proteins alredy on a cellulose acetate strip.

There is no particular specific criteria for interpreteting the western blot results.The number of viral bands present may vary.If viral bands are detected,then the test result is negative.If atleast one viral band is detected for each of the GAG,POL,and ENV gene product groups,then the reult is positive.But the 3-gene product approach of interpretation is NOT For clinical practice.For tests in which less than the required number of viral bands are detected,they are reported as indeterminate.Persons with the indeterminate results are retested for the conclusive results.Almost all the persons with the indeterminant results are found to develop a positive result.

The HIV proteins used in western blotting can be produced by using recombinant DNA techniques called recombinant immunoblot assay[RIBA].

If no antibodies are detected to HIV,that doesn’t mean the person has not be infected.It may take several months for infection to show antibody response of detectable levels. Rapid testing for antibodies to HIV will not give a indicative of true infection.In most the cases,it takes  two to six weeks to reach a detectable level of infection.Even these tests are having the high speficity,false positives may do occur.The positive results should be confirmed by using a lab western blot test.

Even ELISA is having high probability to diagnose HIV,it can’t be used alone,should not be reported as ‘positive’ unless confirmed by a western blot.

Rare false results are due to factors unrelated to HIV,found to be more often with the ELISA than western blot.False positives may be asosicated with the medical conditions such as recent acute illness and allergies.

 

PCR:

Polymerease chain reaction is used to detect genetic material i,e. RNA.It is used for the amplification of the DNA sequences. PCR technique is developed by KARY MULLIS in 1983 and wsa awrded nobel prize in 1993 in chemistry.

The basic underlying principle in PCR is’extensive modifications can be done  to perform the wide array of genetic manipulations.Generally PCR employs a originally isolated heat-stable polymerease enzyme i,e. TAQ POLYMEREASE.This polymerease enzymatically assembles a new DNA strands,using single stranded DNA as template.This method is also known as VIRAL LOAD TEST.Viral load assays measure HIV-RNA from virus particles in the blood plasma.This test is also called NUCLEIC ACID TEST [NAT].IT is of 2 types DNA-PCR,RNA-PCR.

DNA-PCR: Used for screening of babies of HIV+ mothers

RNA-PCR: Used to screen blood donations, organ donations.

PCR tests have been developed that can detect the infection,as little as one viral genome among the DNA of vast group of host cells.Infections can be detected earlier. The donated blood can be directly screened for the virus.Unlike ELISA and western bloting, used for antibodies detection,PCR is is more accurate with early detection.

PCR can be used for the earliest detection, but ELISA and western blot are not effective in early detection, as the antibodies takes time to appear in the circulation.

 

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