Cancer begins when the healthy body cells change and grow out of control, from a tumour. This tumour can be both benign and malignant. 80% of primary liver cancer is hepatocellular carcinoma. the other types of cancer include bile duct cancer, and angiosarcoma, defined as the cancer of the blood cells in the liver. Hepatocellular carcinoma begins in hepatocytes, the main functional cells of the liver.
A rare type of liver cancer occurring in young patients is the fibrolamellar carcinoma, grows more invasively, characterized by a prominent central scar, diagnosed by imaging techniques.
The types include:
- Tumour developing in the liver, but have originated from another organ like colon, stomach, ovary, they are called liver metastasis or secondary liver cancers
- Cancers starting in the blood cells of the liver are called angiosarcomas and hemangiosarcomas
- Cancer originating in the bile duct of the liver are called cholangiocarcinomas
- Tumours called hepatoblastomas occurs majorly in infants and children.
The median age of liver cancer in Asia and Africa is 40-50 years.
CAUSE OF LIVER CANCER
Liver cirrhosis is related as the primary reason for liver cancer, as after the liver is affected by cirrhosis, the tissue of the liver is lowly modified at the expense of normal liver cells which consists more of fibrous and scar tissue, hence increasing the probability of tumour growth.
The risk factors involved in liver cancer are :
- Chronic infection with the hepatitis-B virus(HBV) or hepatitis-C virus (HCV): chronic infection when the virus remains in the blood for more than 6 months, causing the decline in the functioning of the liver cells. It affects 50% of the world population for cancer of the liver.
Hepatitis B infection causes liver cancer immediately without cirrhosis, increasing the risk up to 100 fold, while HCV increases the risk up to 17 fold.
- Long-term alcohol abuse: leading cause of liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. Alcohol intake when suffering from hepatitis increases even more.
- Inherited liver conditions: conditions like haemochromatosis which is a higher absorption of iron from food, deposits in every organ or alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency a protein depositing in every part abnormally, increases the risk of liver cirrhosis and cancer.
- Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, affect the liver like cirrhosis
- Medical conditions like autoimmune hepatitis, intrahepatic biliary inflammations and Wilsons disease are the serious factors affecting liver leading to cancer,
- Gender: live cancer is 4-8 times common in men than women
- Toxic agents exposure: anabolic steroids, increases the risk of hepatocellular adenoma. Intake of aflatoxin-contaminated food, causes DNA mutations in liver DNA cells, leading to cancer cells.
DIAGNOSIS OF LIVER CANCER
- Ultrasound tests to detect nodules, visible on imaging, determine the type of a tumour based on size.
- Blood test: for alfa-fetoprotein detection, higher levels indicate last stage liver disease.
- Biopsy: to determine the type of benign or cancerous liver cells.
SYMPTOMS OF LIVER CANCER
- Sudden weight loss
- Loss of appetite after small meal
- Enlarger liver felt as a mass under the ribs on right side
- Enlarged spleen, mass felt on the left side under ribs
- Yellowing of skin and eyes-jaundice
- Swelling and fluid buildup in the abdomen
- Pain in the abdomen, near the right shoulder blade
TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR LIVER CANCER
- Resection of a tumour by surgery
- Liver transplantation
- Local ablation methods
Cancer is defined as the abnormal growth of cells which multiply uncontrollably and destroy the body tissues. There are about 100 types of cancer and each is classified depending on the type of cell that is affected initially. Cancer alters the body cells to form lumps and masses of tissue called as tumors. These tumors grow and interfere with various systems such as digestive, nervous and circulatory systems.
Cancer gets elevated to a more risky level when
- The cancerous cells begin to move throughout the body in blood and damaging other healthy cells in the body by a process called an invasion.
- A process called angiogenesis, wherein the cells manage to divide and grow to make new blood vessels to feed itself.
When the tumor successfully spreads to all other parts of the body growing, invading and destroying other healthy tissues, the process is called as metastasis which is a very serious condition to treat.
The following are the list of most common types of cancer:
- Anal cancer
- Bladder cancer
- Bone cancer
- Cervical cancer
- Colon cancer
- Colorectal cancer
- Endometrial cancer
- Kidney cancer
- Liver cancer
- Ovarian cancer
- Pancreatic cancer
- Breast cancer
- Prostate cancer
- Stomach cancer
- Testicular cancer
- Thyroid cancer
- Vaginal cancer
- Vulvar cancer
Symptoms of cancer:
The symptom of cancers varies on the type of cancer, its location, how it spreads and how large it is.
- Some cancers can be felt or seen through the skin such as the lump on the breast or the testicle.
- Skin cancers are often identified by any change in the mole or wart on the skin.
- The oral cancers are identified as white spots on the tongue or white patches inside the mouth
Common symptoms of cancer include:
- Coughing, chest pain & breathlessness
- Changes in bowel movements such as blood in the stool, pain in stomach, diarrhea & constipation
- Bleeding such as blood in the vomit, urine, etc
- If the mole is growing bigger than 7 mm in size
- Unexplained weight loss
Classification of cancers:
All types of cancers are broadly classified into 5 main categories. They are:
- Carcinomas- these are characterized by the cells that cover the internal or external part of the body such as lungs, breast, colon, etc
- Sarcomas- these are characterized by the cells that are located in the bones, cartilages, fat, connective tissues, and other tissues
- Lymphomas- those cancers that begin in the lymph nodes and immune system tissues
- Leukemia-these are cancer cells that develop in the bone marrow and finally get accumulated in the blood stream
- Adenomas- these are cancers that develop in the thyroid, pituitary or adrenal glands.
Cancer diagnosis & staging:
Detection of cancer at an early stage will increase the chances of success rates of the treatment. Various imaging techniques are used to detect the presence of tumor cells. X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans & ultrasounds are regularly used to detect the location of the tumor. Doctors may also prefer a method of endoscopy which is the insertion of a thin tube with a camera at one end, to look into the abnormalities within the body.
The best way to diagnose cancer is to extract the cancer cells and examine them under the microscope. This procedure is called as a biopsy. The physician will also analyze the body’s fat, proteins and DNA at the molecular level.
Once the diagnosis is done, the doctor will figure out how far has the cancer cells has affected the body. The most common staging method is called the TNM.
T indicates the size and direct extent of the primary tumor,
N indicates the degree to which cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes
M indicates whether cancer has metastasized to other organs.
Some of the facts about cancer:
- On an average estimate, about 5,00,000 people die of cancer and about 1 million people are diagnosed with cancer in a year.
- Cancer is considered as one of the leading cause of mortality rate in the world.
- Certain vaccines such as HPV help in preventing cervical, vaginal and oral cancers.
- The most common sites of cancers in men are: lung, prostate, stomach, rectum, liver
- The most common sites of cancers in women are: breast, cervix, lung, liver
To know more about this deadly disease, contact us at www.freedoctorhelpline.com or call us at +918010555444. Our doctors are here to help you out with any of your queries and even guide you with treatment procedures.
Why do you think India is the best for cancer treatment?
India is best known for its healthcare services. It provides excellent healthcare to various patients both domestic and international. Here, we provide you the list of the best cancer treatment hospitals in India.
- The best cancer hospitals in Banglore:
- Sri Sankara cancer hospital & research center
- Kidwai memorial hospital of oncology
- Mazumdar shaw medical center
- The best cancer hospitals in Chennai:
- Cancer institute
- Apollo specialty hospital
- Raj memorial medical center
- The best cancer hospital in Kolkata:
- Netaji Subhash Chandra bose cancer research institute
- Bengal oncology center
- Chittaranjan national cancer institute
- The best cancer hospital in Hyderabad:
- American oncology institute
- MNJ institute of oncology
Top cancer hospitals in India:
- Adyar cancer hospital, Chennai
It was established in 1954 and is the most famous cancer center in India. It has both research and preventive facilities for cancer patients. It has the latest equipment for cancer treatments. Some of its special features are blood banks, telemedicine services, tobacco stoppage programs. It also consists of various programs such as nuclear medicine, medical oncology, radiation oncology, surgical oncology, preventive oncology, etc. it provides treatment for cervical, liver, breast, testis, bone, and stomach cancer. This hospital also focuses on boosting mental health of the patients.
- Regional cancer center, Trivandrum
This cancer center located in Trivandrum is one of the famous cancer centers in India which was established on 1981. It is equipped with hi-tech equipment and has facilities for various oncology and surgical treatments. This hospital focuses on identification, research, treatment and prevention of cancer.
- MIOT Hospital, Chennai
It has become a center for oncology in Chennai. It was started in the year 2008. It provides treatment for a wide variety of cancer diseases such as liver, pancreas, breast, bone, head & neck cancer, gynecologic cancer and other facilities like radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and other medical remedies.
- Apollo Hospitals:
It is one of the best cancer hospitals in India and has many branches all over India at Hyderabad, Delhi, and Kolkata. They have experienced doctors with well-trained speech therapists, counselors and dieticians to motivate patients. They are best known for blood transmission & bone marrow transplantation surgeries. It also has special treatments for pediatric cancer treatments.
- Amala cancer institute, Thrissur
This cancer institute located in Kerala provides one of the best cancer treatments to the patients. They also use ayurvedic medicines for treatments. They offer diagnosis, prevention, research and treatment for cancers. They motivate patients through physical exercises, mental health, counseling and religious classes.
- CMC Vellore:
CMC Vellore medical oncology services are provided by the multidisciplinary team. It provides treatment for all stages of cancer including supportive care whenever needed. It also provides chemotherapy and other biological therapies. It has medical oncologists, clinical pharmacists, and pastoral care professionals.
- Lakeshore hospital, Kochi
It offers best cancer treatments for the patients under the guidance of the famous doctor Dr. V.P. Gangadharan. They have experienced doctors with well-trained speech therapists, counselors and dieticians to motivate patients.
- Max institute of oncology, New Delhi:
This is one of the leading cancer treatment centers in India. It has its branches in Punjab & Gurgaon. It provides treatment for lung cancer, head & neck cancer, breast cancer, cervical cancer & gastrointestinal cancer.
Cancer treatment in Ayurveda:
Ayurveda focuses on the principle of rejuvenation. As an alternative approach to cancer treatment, Ayurveda upholds the process of purification in order to bring about a change in the person’s cellular structure. The Ayurvedic process of purification involves fivefold process. For a successful treatment of cancer by means of Ayurveda, it’s important that one embarks upon the given mode in its early stage of discovery.
Listed below are few hospitals that provide cheapest/low-cost cancer treatments for patients:
- Rajiv Gandhi cancer institute and research center
- Regional cancer center, Trivandrum
- ICS cancer detection center, Mumbai
- Dharmashila hospital and research ( DHRC)
- Kidwai memorial institute of oncology, Bangalore
To know more details about these cancer centers and their tremendous services and offers contact our doctors on free doctor helpline by logging onto www.freedoctorhelpline.com or call us at +918010555444.
The cost of various cancer treatments in India:
The cost of various cancer procedures are listed below:
- Chemotherapy: INR 30,000 to 1,00,000 each session
- Targeted therapy: INR 20,00,000 for 5 to 6 sessions
- Radiation therapy: INR 1.,50,000 per cycle
- Head & neck cancer surgery: INR 2,00,000
- Breast cancer surgery: INR: 2,00,000
- PET-CT scan: INR 24,000
Cancer treatment is very expensive and not all patients will be able to afford the treatment. Many will not be in a position to take the financial challenge. This is where many public & private companies come into play to help the people from low-income levels. They offer insurance schemes that will help them continue the treatment.
To know about various cancer treatment options in India, please contact Free Doctor Helpline at +918010555444.