Role of Sex Hormones | Synthesis, Regulation & Function
Hormones are the chemical substances that circulate throughout your body. They are produced and secreted by the glands which play a very vital role in our body functions and daily activities. Different types of hormones affect different glands. Sex hormones form an important and a critical part of our body functions that is generally responsible for regulating the skeletal growths in both the males as well as the females. These hormones affect the internal process of skeletal growth when there is an increase or decrease in the skeletal mass during those periods.
The sex hormones tend to interact with the cytosolic and the specific nuclear receptors such that it can produce masses of genomic effects in an innumerable amount of different vascular cells as present inside the body along with the added non-genomic vascular effects while acting with the specific plasmalemmal receptors.
Our human body comprises of innumerable assortments of different types and forms of hormones each of which performs different functions, few of which may even be interlinked. Growth hormone and sex hormones are few of the examples of those hormone assortments that functions inside our body and regulates our body functions. Hormones are responsible for transferring the messages in between the organs and the cells.
Hormones are secreted in our endocrine systems by the glands that are present inside the endocrine system. This secretion helps in keeping the hormone levels normal and supports in maintaining our body balance. The body thus keeps its balance and functions normally and effectively.
Ageing, the progressive change, and the process of getting older are also associated with hormones. It is affected by the loss of these sex hormones in the human body, be it male or female. Therefore, if one wishes to restore their feelings of well-being, happiness, comfort, longevity, sexual desires and ambitions, sex drive, pleasures, muscle or bone losses, lost energy levels, or any other effects that are associated with aging, then, one needs to replace their male / female hormones that have been lost during the process of aging.
Certainly, there exists several approaches and procedures that may be done to restore these hormones and look more youthful. Few of such hormone supplements include creams, patches and pellets. These approaches would at times help you in ageing slowly and lead an improved satisfied life during your old age.
Sex Hormones: Synthesis
- Synthesis of the sex hormones is controlled by the production of a hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).
- During the process of general circulations, GnRH tends to encourage the production of luteinizing hormone (LH) and the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in the pituitary gland.
- LH further binds itself to the target cells which may again lead to an increase in the extraction of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) which promotes cholesterol transfers and initiates steroidogenesis.
- Androgens, DHEA and androstenedione are released in the adrenal cortex.
- Testosterone is released in the Leydig cells, lying adjacent to the male testes.
- The production of pregnenolone is initiated in the Leydig cells of the luteinizing hormone.
- The synthesis of oestrogen in females helps in controlling the growth and development of sexual characteristics in females.
- The synthesis of glandular oestrogen takes place in the ovarian cells and the corpus luteum.
- The luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates the granulosa cells to release pregnenolone.
- Pregnenolone then diffuses from these granulosa cells and mediate the process of pregnenolone hormone conversion to androstenedione through DHEA.
- The process of extra-glandular synthesis facilitates the aromatization of androgens to oestrone.
- The fat cells convert the androgen to oestrone and thereby increases the serum oestrogens.
- The bones convert testosterone to form local oestrogen and thereby supports the development of epiphyses.
- Even though oestrogens are usually responsible for balancing the sexual characteristics in females, however, they are also synthesized at some levels in males.
- Progestin synthesis also exists. The inventories of hormone synthesis alter menstrual cycles during its production.
Hormones tend to control the functions of all the organs, and therefore it becomes extremely important to keep our hormonal levels balanced. Hormone imbalances can have several adverse effects on our total body processes. It affects the way our body stores its energy. It controls the levels of fluids, salt and sugar/glucose in our body. Sex hormones influences and affects the health of both men and women and therefore there always exists a need to keep a track your hormone levels and perform regular assessments and routine examinations to keep a balance of its levels last longer. Even a very small variation in the hormonal levels can take you to adverse situations.
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