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Teenage Bodybuilding: A Guide For Your Muscle Quest

“Fitness is not about being better than someone else, it’s about better than you used to be”.

This quote should be taken as a key principle for all the teenagers who are enthusiast towards the bodybuilding and gymming trends. In this article, we will talk about what should be adapted and what should not be to achieve perfect fitness goals.

Teenage is an exponential growth phase of an individual. At this phase, body asks for the high nutrition to achieve the correct growth. There are lots of myths associated with the teenage bodybuilding and one of the biggest is that doing weightlifting and regular gyming can stunt their growth. But the truth is that if it is done under proper supervision than it can definitely improve your game.

bodybuilding, teenage, teenage bodybuilding

Teenage Bodybuilding: What should be adopted?

1. Nutrition for teens: To achieve your dream fitness goal one should give ample amount of nutrition to it. You need to have balanced diet to keep your body energized and grow properly. A balanced diet includes raw materials high in nutritive values of carbs, proteins, fats, and fibers.To attain proper body mass and weight one should have a good diet.

● In carbohydrates, you can have a bowl of oatmeal, sweet potatoes, rice, and corns.Approximately of 40-50 gms of carbohydrates should be included in each serving.
● In fibers one can include ½ cup of raw broccoli, cauliflower, carrots, pepper etc with each serving weighs approximately 6gm.
● In proteins chicken breast, egg whites, turkey, fish and size of each serving will be approximately 30-50 gms.
● The good fat list includes extra virgin olive oil or organic flaxseed oil.

2. Be Hydrated: Throughout the day drink about 0.66x your bodyweight in ounces of water. To excrete all the toxic waste of out of your body one should drink ample amount of water.Dehydration of muscles can lead to painful cramps.

3. Avoid taking shortcuts: The mantra of bodybuilding is S=Dx (T+N+R) where S stands for the success which can only be achieved when D- determination is multiplied and added with T- training, N-proper nutrition, R- rest and recovery. None of the steps should be missed out to achieve your fit body goals. Don’t skip your meals with supplements and never go for steroids as they can cause serious damage to your health.

4. Recommended movements:

To get the best results some of the recommended movements are as following:

Chest: bench press, incline bench press, chest dips
Back: deadlifts, barbell rows, dumbbell rows, pull-ups.
Shoulder: Military press, seated barbell press, seated dumbbell press.
Triceps – Close grip bench Press, dips, bench dips.

5. Get a proper checkup:

Consult the doctor before engaging in any of the bodybuilding programmes and get yourself checked for any of the abnormalities or risk of cardiac or bone diseases.

Things You should be avoided while Bodybuilding?

1. Avoid the Injuries: you should not focus so much on lifting the heaviest weights to maintain good form. Good form can only be achieved if you train under expert supervision to avoid the risk of injuries and this will definitely help in better development.

2. Avoid fancy Supplements: Most people think that supplements are the most important part of gaining muscle but are not totally true. Supplements are just additions to an already good nutrition and training program. Supplements do not make up for improper training and in teenage one should avoid taking testosterone enhancing supplements. When an individual is at his teen the level of testosterone is already very high and there is no need of supplements whereas instead of fancy supplements one can take the protein bar or ready to drink shakes. About 1.6 grams of protein each day for each kilogram that you weigh is optimal for an individual and one should not overdo protein in their diet with unnecessary supplements.

3. Take Proper Sleep: Our body needs about 7-8 hours of sleep and if you want to achieve healthy and fit body one should take proper sleep. Teenagers generally like to stay awake for late night but this habit affects their concentration and stamina and they will get distracted from their fitness dream goals.

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3 years ago Health

Does tooth infection cause heart disease?

“It’s better to have it treated when it’s treatable than to wait until it gets out of hand and is possibly life-threatening,” said Dr. Gary R. Hartwell, the president of the American Association of Endodontists.I think what Dr. Hartwell wanted to state is that if any infection left untreated, in future it may cause a toll on your overall health. As it has been seen that one or more focal infection in our body can lead or promote to various chronic degenerative diseases.

Researchers have found that gum disease have a strong association with heart diseases as the gum diseases increases the risk of heart attack by as much as 25 percent, and the risk of stroke by a factor of 10.You may find it strange that how can my tooth ache can lead to my heart ache?But it’s like an alarming statement which should not be neglected.  Plaque-a thick colourless adhesive layer formed on teeth is the reservoir of gram negative bacteria. And this microbial plaque causes dental caries and periodontal diseases.Studies have shown that both dental caries and periodontal diseases initiates the inflammatory process which act as a risk factor for cardiac diseases.

Is infection only in my teeth or my heart is also getting affected?

The subgingival biofilm is constitute of enormous bacterial load and initiates inflammatory reactions which stresses immunity. American Heart Institution states that too much inflammatory actions weakens the heart,causes plaque formation of arteries. Due to this the risk of stroke will be elevated. In a study by S.Al Mubarak periodontitis causes the atheroma progression by stimulating liver to produce C -reactive proteins (a marker of inflammation process).It is a hyperinflammatory monocytic activity which increases the risk of cardiac diseases.

Other oral infection which aggravates the cardiac mortality is periapical abscess.

It is a root tip infection usually happen when deep caries left untreated.The most common choice of treatment for periapical abscess is root canal treatment.But in reality, root canal treatments never completely sterilizes the pulp tissue, as there is always some remnants of bacteria present in dentinal tubules,accessory canals and pulp tissues. Now these bacteria travel in blood  and causes transient bacteremia.Patients with the risk of endocarditis may have this bacterial lodge in the compromised tissue, promoting significant infection deep in heart that can result in massive heart damage.

What is going around the world

The New York Times published a data  extracted from the Journal of Endodontics on the morbidity rate of dental emergencies with major focus on periapical abscess  and results are upsetting.A study from Finland states that the poor oral hygiene can hurt your heart. In a study, researchers have found that patients who underwent root canal treatment are more likely to have acute coronary syndrome.

Last note from us!

You cannot afford to keep your gum diseases left untreated as it is a serious health issue which should be manage quickly and effectively.And to keep your heart healthy one should keep his/her teeth healthy.

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3 years ago Medical

Diagnostic tests for dengue

The epidemic arbor viral disease “DENGUE “is caused by an infection with 1 of the 4 stereotypes of virus called Flavivirus. This arthoropod borne illness is predominantly transmitted by mosquitoes of genus Aedes ( Aedes albopictus , Aedes aegypti). Historically this illness was documented in the Chinese encyclopedia of symptoms during chin dynasty (CE 265 – 420). First outbreak of dengue has been recorded in 1635 in west indies , as the time flew  this illness became more epidemic gaining new names  in accordance with its occurrence (1779 – 1780) as “Break bone fever” in Asia, North America, Africa and ” Dandy fever” in regions of East Africa ( 1820).

Incubation period of dengue is 3 – 14 days and the symptoms may begin after the 2 weeks of transmission. Progression of this illness can be categorized into initial dengue in which symptoms like”Dengue triad “(Fever, headache, rash) can be seen and the severe dengue stage shows dengue hemorrhagic syndrome, dengue shock syndrome. Both of these severe stages include maculopapular rash on the skin, myalgia, vomiting, arthralgia, altered taste sensation, dehydration. Early detection of this disease is less harmful and can be cured effectively where as if left untreated may even lead to fatal risk of life, death.

DIAGNOSIS:

Various sophisticated techniques have been developed these days which are more efficient in diagnosing it. Serological diagnosis has been cardinal in early stages of dengue in which the amount of antibody titers including IgM and IgG are checked in paired serum samples. Viral genome sequences in autopsy, serum, cerebrospinal fluid can be diagnosed using RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction). NS1 (Nonstructural protein) test along with Immunofluorescence essays like MAC –ELISA test are more popular in early detection of illness. In patients suspected with dengue significant low levels of WBC, neutrophils, and platelet counts are seen hence complete blood picture can rule this out. Hematocrit level are known to rise up to 20% hence for every 24 hours, these levels are to be monitored. Coagulation studies include testing prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin, fibrinogen levels. Ultrasonography is recommended to rule out the suspicion of pleural effusion and thickened urinary bladder in case of dengue hemorrhagic fever. In case of early coagulation guaiac testing is done followed by typing and cross matching of blood ( In dengue shock syndrome ) .Complete urine examination tests , CSF test , should be done in order to exclude or confirm patient condition of body fluids .Biopsy of skin lesions may reveal any abnormality in blood vessels. Head computed tomography is performed to check any intra cranial bleeding in case of dengue hemorrhagic fever. PRNT (plaque reduction neutralization test) is used to determining the type of stereotype of virus causing dengue in which the serum sample is diluted with viral suspension and the amount of plaque formation units are measured. This quantifies titer of neutralizing antibodies for a virus.

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3 years ago Medical

Diagnostic tests for HIV

HIV/AIDS also called as Human immunodeficiency virus/Acquired immune deficiency syndrome. One of the most dangerous STD’s, significantly challenging the gobal world with its devastating effects.HIV is caused by the “LENTI”virus[a class of retrovirus].HIV virus mainly acts on the imunne system of the body,by attacking the CD4 cells.Destruction of these cells results in the loss of defensive actions aganist various types of infections.Over the time,HIV leads to AIDS[Accquired immune deficiency syndrome]. If HIV is left untreated,it leads to AIDS stage.Well,early detection of the infection,using appropriate diagnostic tests helps the patients to live longer with the infection, without reaching to the AIDS stage.

The diagnostic tests for HIV includes;ELISA,westernblot test,polymerease chain reaction,[NAT test].ELISA is the primary test for HIV detection,if it is found to be positive,then western blot test is preffered for the further confirmation.If the ELISA is negative,then the individual should be retested again after a month.While PCR is a technique used to detect virus in the body,which is accurate method.Some of the other tests include antigen tests,antigen-antibody combinations.

 

ELISA:

Enzyme linked immune sorbent assay,was the first diagnostic test employed for the HIV. It has a high sensitivity.It involes the immune system component i,e.antibodies[igG,igM].Firstly serum from the person is collected,and it is diluted upto 400 folds.The diluted serum is applied on the plate to which HIV antigens are attached.If the person is having HIV antibodies,they may bind to the antigens.Then the plate is washed to remove the all other serum components.”SECONDARY ANTIBODY”-an antibody that binds to the human antibodies itself,is applied to the plate followed by another wash.This secondary antibody is chemically linked to enzyme.Thus the secondary antibody bound to the plate is in proportion with the enzyme on the plate.A substrate is added for the enzyme,and the catalysis by the enzyme leads to fluorescene or in colour of the substances.The most controversial aspect of this test is determining the”cut-off” point between a positive and negative result.

 

WESTERN BLOT:

Similar to the ELISA,western blot is also an antibody detection test.But unlike ELISA, first the viral proteins are separated and immobilised.Binding of serum antibodies to specific HIV proteins is visualised.

Specific cells of HIV infection are opened and the proteins within are palced into a slab of gel,to which the electric current is applied.Different proteins have different speeds, depending on their size.While the electric charge is levelled by a sodium lauryl sulphate, surfactant. Once the proteins are well separated,they are transferred to the membrane and the further process is continued similar to ELISA.The diluted serum is applied to the membrane and the antibodies in the serum may attached to the the HIV proteins.Antibodies that are not attached are washed away,where as the enzyme linked antibodies attaches to the secondary antibodies and determines to which HIV proteins the person is having antibodies.Commercially prepared western blot test kits contains the HIV proteins alredy on a cellulose acetate strip.

There is no particular specific criteria for interpreteting the western blot results.The number of viral bands present may vary.If viral bands are detected,then the test result is negative.If atleast one viral band is detected for each of the GAG,POL,and ENV gene product groups,then the reult is positive.But the 3-gene product approach of interpretation is NOT For clinical practice.For tests in which less than the required number of viral bands are detected,they are reported as indeterminate.Persons with the indeterminate results are retested for the conclusive results.Almost all the persons with the indeterminant results are found to develop a positive result.

The HIV proteins used in western blotting can be produced by using recombinant DNA techniques called recombinant immunoblot assay[RIBA].

If no antibodies are detected to HIV,that doesn’t mean the person has not be infected.It may take several months for infection to show antibody response of detectable levels. Rapid testing for antibodies to HIV will not give a indicative of true infection.In most the cases,it takes  two to six weeks to reach a detectable level of infection.Even these tests are having the high speficity,false positives may do occur.The positive results should be confirmed by using a lab western blot test.

Even ELISA is having high probability to diagnose HIV,it can’t be used alone,should not be reported as ‘positive’ unless confirmed by a western blot.

Rare false results are due to factors unrelated to HIV,found to be more often with the ELISA than western blot.False positives may be asosicated with the medical conditions such as recent acute illness and allergies.

 

PCR:

Polymerease chain reaction is used to detect genetic material i,e. RNA.It is used for the amplification of the DNA sequences. PCR technique is developed by KARY MULLIS in 1983 and wsa awrded nobel prize in 1993 in chemistry.

The basic underlying principle in PCR is’extensive modifications can be done  to perform the wide array of genetic manipulations.Generally PCR employs a originally isolated heat-stable polymerease enzyme i,e. TAQ POLYMEREASE.This polymerease enzymatically assembles a new DNA strands,using single stranded DNA as template.This method is also known as VIRAL LOAD TEST.Viral load assays measure HIV-RNA from virus particles in the blood plasma.This test is also called NUCLEIC ACID TEST [NAT].IT is of 2 types DNA-PCR,RNA-PCR.

DNA-PCR: Used for screening of babies of HIV+ mothers

RNA-PCR: Used to screen blood donations, organ donations.

PCR tests have been developed that can detect the infection,as little as one viral genome among the DNA of vast group of host cells.Infections can be detected earlier. The donated blood can be directly screened for the virus.Unlike ELISA and western bloting, used for antibodies detection,PCR is is more accurate with early detection.

PCR can be used for the earliest detection,but ELISA and western blot are not effective in early detection,as the antibodies takes time to appear in the circulation.

 

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3 years ago Health

10 HEALTH BENEFITS OF HIGH QUALITY SLEEP

10 Amazing Health Benefits Of High Quality  Sleep

Girl Sleeping on white bed

health-benefits-of-high-quality-sleep

1. REDUCED INFLAMMATION

Studies have shown that people who get less than 6 hours of sleep per night have higher levels of inflammatory proteins in their blood.

These inflammatory proteins can cause heat, pain, redness and swelling. They also increase your risk for various chronic diseases including arthritis, diabetes, high blood pressure and stroke.

By ensuring that you get at least 6 hours of high quality sleep each night, you can reduce the levels of inflammatory proteins in your blood and protect yourself against the chronic diseases listed above

2. IMPROVED MEMORY:

Getting good quality sleep has a double benefit when it comes to your memory.

First, it allows you to process and retain new information much more efficiently. Second, it increases your brain’s receptiveness to new information and allow you to absorb it much better.

3. BETTER PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE

Research has shows time and time again that sleep quality has a direct impact on physical performance.

So if you want to blast through plateaus and achieve your fitness goals, make sure your’s getting consistent, good quality sleep.

4. IMPROVED CONCENTRATION

High quality sleep has been shown to have a hugely positive effect on concentration levels.

Therefore, by making an effort to sleep well every night, you can improve your concentration, be more efficient in your  day to day life and be more focussed during your workouts.

5.EASIER WEIGHT LOSS

Poor quality sleep inhibits growth hormone levels (which builds muscle and burns body fat), increases your appetite and reduces your physical activity levels.

This means by aiming to get 6 – 10 hours of quality sleep per night, you can prevent the above from happening and improve your chances of weight loss success.

6.INCREASED MUSCLE MASS

If you’re looking to build muscle, high quality sleep can help.

As already mentioned, quality sleep increases your growth hormone levels and this stimulates muscle growth.

Sleep also improves your physical performance and allows you to perform at you to perform at your peak during muscle building workouts.

7. LOWER STRESS LEVELS

Research has shown that sleep quality can be directly correlated with stress levels.

Stress doesn’t just have negative effect on how you feel but it can also lead to high blood pressure, heart disease and more.By making sure you get a minimum of 6 hours of high quality sleep every, your’ll feel much happier and more relaxed and avoid the negative physical of stress.

8.STRONGER IMMUNE SYSTEM

Failing to get good quality sleep on a regular basis can weaken your immune system which makes you much more susceptible to infections. It also means that your body takes much longer to deal with them you do contract them.

So if you want to stay healthy and infection free, make sure you’re getting lots of consistent, high quality sleep.

9.INCREASED LIFE EXPECTANCY

Countless studies have shown that sleeping for less than 6 hours per night has a negative effect on your lifespan.

Therefore, if you want to live a longer and happier life make sure you’re getting plenty of good quality sleep.

10.BETTER MOOD

you probably know from personal experience that holding a good mood when in a sleep deprived state is a difficult task.

So if you want to be happy more often aim to get over 6 hours of  high quality sleep a consistent basis

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3 years ago Health

Diet for kidney patients

Patients with chronic kidney disease, a properly balanced nutrition play a vital role in maintaining the body health and preventing further kidney degeneration. In kidney disease, the body does not get rid of the waste and unwanted nutrients like toxic fluids, extra nutrients. These further buildup in the body and affect the kidney even more. Hence a change in the diet is a solution to keep the health of the kidney.
Depending on the intensity of the kidney disease, the principal component nutrients include protein, potassium, phosphorous, sodium and fluids.
1. Protein: principal function of the protein is to build and maintain bones, muscle, skin and hair. With the kidney disease, lower protein diet, he body condition worsened. Meats, seafood, eggs, legumes are good sources of protein. Seafood like shellfish, fish, and meat like beef, lean, lamb, pork, loin pork, turkey are the essential sources of protein.

2. Potassium: functions primarily for working of muscles and nerves. Any changes in the potassium level, affect the tonicity of muscles, hence their functioning. Hence a low potassium diet has to be maintained.
Apple, apricot nectar, cherries, cranberry juice, grapes, grapefruit juice, pear, lemon, lime, pineapple, plum, cabbage, corn, cucumber, onions, spinach, carrots, asparagus, alfalfa sprouts, lettuce, peppers are the fruits and vegetables giving less than 200 mg of potassium per serving.
For limiting potassium, these foods are to be eaten in a limit or avoided: banana, dried fruits, melon, mango, avocado, potatoes, broccoli, pumpkin, dried peas and beans.

3. Phosphorous: kidneys mainly control the balance of phosphorous in the body. When phosphorus is built up in the body, it removes calcium from the bones, leading to weakening of bones which break easily and cause severe pain. And too much phosphorous in the body, in the blood causes heart disease.
For a low phosphorous diet, milk substitutes like almond milk, rice milk, other supplements like angel food or cake, animal crackers, bun, cereals, cooked cereals except for oats, cookies of apple, berry, butter, popcorn, pita pocket.
To limit the phosphorous intake, boxed foods, cocoa, salad dressings, cheese(processed), light cream, soymilk.

4. Sodium: the primary and the most vital nutrient to be taken care of. The limit for sodium should be maintained, to prevent excess fluid from building in the body. When too much fluid is retained in the body, the blood pressure shoots up, suffer from breathlessness, and damage to the kidney and heart are observed.
Low sodium containing foods are bread, buns, rolls, desserts and pastries made from starch without much-added salts, fruits, meats without added sodium, homemade soups, vegetables without added salt.
The high sodium containing foods which should be prevented are boxed foods, cheese and cheese spreads, fast food, frozen dinners, soya and other Asian sauces, canned soups and vegetables.
5. Calcium: Calcium is another mineral component, calcium can affect kidney functioning, hence is limited by eating low-phosphorous containing foods. Phosphorus binders and high calcium content foods are to be avoided, as they deposit on the nephrons.

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3 years ago Medical

Liver cancer

Cancer begins when the healthy body cells change and grow out of control, from a tumour. This tumour can be both benign and malignant. 80% of primary liver cancer is hepatocellular carcinoma. the other types of cancer include bile duct cancer, and angiosarcoma, defined as the cancer of the blood cells in the liver. Hepatocellular carcinoma begins in hepatocytes, the main functional cells of the liver.

A rare type of liver cancer occurring in young patients is the fibrolamellar carcinoma, grows more invasively, characterized by a prominent central scar, diagnosed by imaging techniques.

The types include:

  • Tumour developing in the liver, but have originated from another organ like colon, stomach, ovary, they are called liver metastasis or secondary liver cancers
  • Cancers starting in the blood cells of the liver are called angiosarcomas and hemangiosarcomas
  • Cancer originating in the bile duct of the liver are called cholangiocarcinomas
  • Tumours called hepatoblastomas occurs majorly in infants and children.

The median age of liver cancer in Asia and Africa is 40-50 years.

CAUSE OF LIVER CANCER

Liver cirrhosis is related as the primary reason for liver cancer, as after the liver is affected by cirrhosis, the tissue of the liver is lowly modified at the expense of normal liver cells which consists more of fibrous and scar tissue, hence increasing the probability of tumour growth.

The risk factors involved in liver cancer are :

  1. Chronic infection with the hepatitis-B virus(HBV) or hepatitis-C virus (HCV): chronic infection when the virus remains in the blood for more than 6 months, causing the decline in the functioning of the liver cells. It affects 50% of the world population for cancer of the liver.

Hepatitis B infection causes liver cancer immediately without cirrhosis, increasing the risk up to 100 fold, while HCV increases the risk up to 17 fold.

  1. Long-term alcohol abuse: leading cause of liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. Alcohol intake when suffering from hepatitis increases even more.
  2. Inherited liver conditions: conditions like haemochromatosis which is a higher absorption of iron from food, deposits in every organ or alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency a protein depositing in every part abnormally, increases the risk of liver cirrhosis and cancer.
  3. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, affect the liver like cirrhosis
  4. Medical conditions like autoimmune hepatitis, intrahepatic biliary inflammations and Wilsons disease are the serious factors affecting liver leading to cancer,
  5. Gender: live cancer is 4-8 times common in men than women
  6. Toxic agents exposure: anabolic steroids, increases the risk of hepatocellular adenoma. Intake of aflatoxin-contaminated food, causes DNA mutations in liver DNA cells, leading to cancer cells.

DIAGNOSIS OF LIVER CANCER

  • Ultrasound tests to detect nodules, visible on imaging, determine the type of a tumour based on size.
  • Blood test: for alfa-fetoprotein detection, higher levels indicate last stage liver disease.
  • Biopsy: to determine the type of benign or cancerous liver cells.

SYMPTOMS OF LIVER CANCER

  • Sudden weight loss
  • Fatigue
  • Loss of appetite after small meal
  • Enlarger liver felt as a mass under the ribs on right side
  • Enlarged spleen, mass felt on the left side under ribs
  • Yellowing of skin and eyes-jaundice
  • Swelling and fluid buildup in the abdomen
  • Pain in the abdomen, near the right shoulder blade

TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR LIVER CANCER

  • Resection of a tumour by surgery
  • Liver transplantation
  • Local ablation methods

 

 

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Diet for kidney patients

Patients with chronic kidney disease, a properly balanced nutrition play a vital role in maintaining the body health and preventing further kidney degeneration.  In kidney disease, the body does not get rid of the waste and unwanted nutrients like toxic fluids, extra nutrients. These further buildup in the body and affect the kidney even more. Hence a change in the diet is a solution to keep the health of the kidney.

Depending on the intensity of the kidney disease, the principal component nutrients include protein, potassium, phosphorous, sodium and fluids.

1. Protein: principal function of the protein is to build and maintain bones, muscle, skin and hair. With the kidney disease, lower protein diet, he body condition worsened. Meats, seafood, eggs, legumes are good sources of protein. Seafood like shellfish, fish, and meat like beef, lean, lamb, pork, loin pork, turkey are the essential sources of protein.

2. Potassium: functions primarily for working of muscles and nerves. Any changes in the potassium level, affect the tonicity of muscles, hence their functioning. Hence a low potassium diet has to be maintained.

Apple, apricot nectar, cherries, cranberry juice, grapes, grapefruit juice, pear, lemon, lime, pineapple, plum, cabbage, corn, cucumber, onions, spinach, carrots, asparagus, alfalfa sprouts, lettuce, peppers are the fruits and vegetables giving less than 200 mg of potassium per serving.

For limiting potassium,  these foods are to be eaten in a limit or avoided: banana, dried fruits, melon, mango, avocado, potatoes, broccoli, pumpkin, dried peas and beans.

3. Phosphorous: kidneys mainly control the balance of phosphorous in the body. When phosphorus is built up in the body, it removes calcium from the bones, leading to weakening of bones which break easily and cause severe pain. And too much phosphorous in the body, in the blood causes heart disease.

For a low phosphorous diet, milk substitutes like almond milk, rice milk, other supplements like angel food or cake, animal crackers, bun, cereals, cooked cereals except for oats, cookies of apple, berry, butter, popcorn, pita pocket.

To limit the phosphorous intake, boxed foods, cocoa, salad dressings, cheese(processed), light cream, soymilk.

4. Sodium: the primary and the most vital nutrient to be taken care of. The limit for sodium should be maintained, to prevent excess fluid from building in the body. When too much fluid is retained in the body, the blood pressure shoots up, suffer from breathlessness, and damage to the kidney and heart are observed.

Low sodium containing foods are bread, buns, rolls, desserts and pastries made from starch without much-added salts, fruits, meats without added sodium, homemade soups, vegetables without added salt.

The high sodium containing foods which should be prevented are boxed foods, cheese and cheese spreads, fast food, frozen dinners, soya and other Asian sauces, canned soups and vegetables.

5. Calcium: Calcium is another mineral component, calcium can affect kidney functioning, hence is limited by eating low-phosphorous containing foods. Phosphorus binders and high calcium content foods are to be avoided, as they deposit on the nephrons.

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4 years ago Medical

Diagnostic tests for HIV/AIDS

HIV/AIDS also called as Human immunodeficiency virus/Acquired immune deficiency syndrome. One of the most dangerous STD’s, significantly challenging the gobal world with its devastating effects.HIV is caused by the “LENTI”virus[a class of retrovirus].HIV virus mainly acts on the imunne system of the body,by attacking the CD4 cells.Destruction of these cells results in the loss of defensive actions aganist various types of infections.Over the time,HIV leads to AIDS[Accquired immune deficiency syndrome]. If HIV is left untreated,it leads to AIDS stage.Well,early detection of the infection,using appropriate diagnostic tests helps the patients to live longer with the infection, without reaching to the AIDS stage.

The diagnostic tests for HIV includes;ELISA,westernblot test,polymerease chain reaction,[NAT test].ELISA is the primary test for HIV detection,if it is found to be positive,then western blot test is preffered for the further confirmation.If the ELISA is negative,then the individual should be retested again after a month.While PCR is a technique used to detect virus in the body,which is accurate method.Some of the other tests include antigen tests,antigen-antibody combinations.

 

ELISA:

Enzyme linked immune sorbent assay,was the first diagnostic test employed for the HIV. It has a high sensitivity.It involes the immune system component i,e.antibodies[igG,igM].Firstly serum from the person is collected,and it is diluted upto 400 folds.The diluted serum is applied on the plate to which HIV antigens are attached.If the person is having HIV antibodies,they may bind to the antigens.Then the plate is washed to remove the all other serum components.”SECONDARY ANTIBODY”-an antibody that binds to the human antibodies itself,is applied to the plate followed by another wash.This secondary antibody is chemically linked to enzyme.Thus the secondary antibody bound to the plate is in proportion with the enzyme on the plate.A substrate is added for the enzyme,and the catalysis by the enzyme leads to fluorescene or in colour of the substances.The most controversial aspect of this test is determining the”cut-off” point between a positive and negative result.

 

WESTERN BLOT:

Similar to the ELISA,western blot is also an antibody detection test.But unlike ELISA, first the viral proteins are separated and immobilised.Binding of serum antibodies to specific HIV proteins is visualised.

Specific cells of HIV infection are opened and the proteins within are palced into a slab of gel,to which the electric current is applied.Different proteins have different speeds, depending on their size.While the electric charge is levelled by a sodium lauryl sulphate, surfactant. Once the proteins are well separated,they are transferred to the membrane and the further process is continued similar to ELISA.The diluted serum is applied to the membrane and the antibodies in the serum may attached to the the HIV proteins.Antibodies that are not attached are washed away,where as the enzyme linked antibodies attaches to the secondary antibodies and determines to which HIV proteins the person is having antibodies.Commercially prepared western blot test kits contains the HIV proteins alredy on a cellulose acetate strip.

There is no particular specific criteria for interpreteting the western blot results.The number of viral bands present may vary.If viral bands are detected,then the test result is negative.If atleast one viral band is detected for each of the GAG,POL,and ENV gene product groups,then the reult is positive.But the 3-gene product approach of interpretation is NOT For clinical practice.For tests in which less than the required number of viral bands are detected,they are reported as indeterminate.Persons with the indeterminate results are retested for the conclusive results.Almost all the persons with the indeterminant results are found to develop a positive result.

The HIV proteins used in western blotting can be produced by using recombinant DNA techniques called recombinant immunoblot assay[RIBA].

If no antibodies are detected to HIV,that doesn’t mean the person has not be infected.It may take several months for infection to show antibody response of detectable levels. Rapid testing for antibodies to HIV will not give a indicative of true infection.In most the cases,it takes  two to six weeks to reach a detectable level of infection.Even these tests are having the high speficity,false positives may do occur.The positive results should be confirmed by using a lab western blot test.

Even ELISA is having high probability to diagnose HIV,it can’t be used alone,should not be reported as ‘positive’ unless confirmed by a western blot.

Rare false results are due to factors unrelated to HIV,found to be more often with the ELISA than western blot.False positives may be asosicated with the medical conditions such as recent acute illness and allergies.

 

PCR:

Polymerease chain reaction is used to detect genetic material i,e. RNA.It is used for the amplification of the DNA sequences. PCR technique is developed by KARY MULLIS in 1983 and wsa awrded nobel prize in 1993 in chemistry.

The basic underlying principle in PCR is’extensive modifications can be done  to perform the wide array of genetic manipulations.Generally PCR employs a originally isolated heat-stable polymerease enzyme i,e. TAQ POLYMEREASE.This polymerease enzymatically assembles a new DNA strands,using single stranded DNA as template.This method is also known as VIRAL LOAD TEST.Viral load assays measure HIV-RNA from virus particles in the blood plasma.This test is also called NUCLEIC ACID TEST [NAT].IT is of 2 types DNA-PCR,RNA-PCR.

DNA-PCR: Used for screening of babies of HIV+ mothers

RNA-PCR: Used to screen blood donations, organ donations.

PCR tests have been developed that can detect the infection,as little as one viral genome among the DNA of vast group of host cells.Infections can be detected earlier. The donated blood can be directly screened for the virus.Unlike ELISA and western bloting, used for antibodies detection,PCR is is more accurate with early detection.

PCR can be used for the earliest detection, but ELISA and western blot are not effective in early detection, as the antibodies takes time to appear in the circulation.

 

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4 years ago LifeStyle , obesity

Perfect diet for loosing weight

Losing weight has become a mandatory measure of survival in today’s lifestyle. It is vital to maintaining proper weight to avoid further chronic disease development in the later stages of life. Hence for more proper weight loss, we need to maintain a proper diet. Losing weight is completely using the saturated body fat for metabolism purposes. Hence a diet for the same should be followed.

 

The quick tips for a properly balanced weight loss regimen are:

  • Have regular meals
  • Eat in proper time periods
  • Get homemade food
  • Keep healthy and fresh food on the go
  • Include all types of food types.
  • Choose smaller size plates for eating less
  • Avoid direct sugar and salt
  • Eat more fibers like fruits, veggies, and nuts
  • Keep a flexible diet plan.

 

 

 The important foods which should be added to the weight loss regimen are:

 

  1. Almonds: they are the best source of monosaturated and polyunsaturated fats, helping in lowering body cholesterol. The constant the minimal calories thane any nuts and plenty of fiber and vitamin E. individuals who supplementary a daily portion of almonds to a low-calorie diet lost more mass than those who followed the same diet but ate a carb-heavy snack such as crackers instead.

 

  1. Apple: they contain pectin, which helps in slowing down digestion, keeping the stomach full. It acts as a natural appetite suppressant. They are also a good source of antioxidants, vitamin c, and fibers.

 

 

  1. Avocados: they are a storehouse of magnesium, potassium and other macronutrients.

 

  1. Bananas: they are the perfect source of resistant starch. They resist food cravings and keep the stomach full. They regulate blood pressure, replenish nutrients after the workout.

 

  1. Coffee: caffeine in coffee is a good source for speeding the body’s metabolism. A study in Physiology & Behaviour found that the average metabolic rate of people who drank caffeinated coffee was 16% higher than those who drank only decaf.

 

  1. Dark chocolate: contains a good amount of monosaturated fatty acids, speeding up the body’s metabolism. It also curbs chocolate cravings.

 

  1. Green tea: they are packed with antioxidants helping in fat burning, inflammation prevention and increase the energy.
  2. Lemons: apart from adding taste to the regular food, it serves as a pectin fiber, and a vital source of vitamin C.

 

  1. Oatmeal: they boost metabolism resisting starch and have 4.6 grams in half serving

 

  1. Oranges: from the family of citrus fruits, they contain low calories and plenty of fiber.

 

 

  1. Peanut butter: the favorite meal since childhood, it is a great source of protein and healthy fats. Having small snacks during the day that include a lean protein such as peanut butter with complex carbs (like an apple or banana) can also help keep your metabolism running smoothly.

 

  1. Pumpkin: Pumpkin is packed with filling fiber which contains more than 20% of the daily recommended amount and potassium, vitamin B, and beta-carotene. And it’s low in calories but naturally sweet, making it the perfect ingredient for guilt-free baked goods.

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