There is no chance of pregnancy as there was no penetration and you were during the safe period of your menstrual cycle, during which one cannot conceive.
If your menstrual bloodis slicker than usual, that’s probably just because cervical mucus has mixed with the blood. This is normal and usually no reason for alarm.
“I am struggling through a very deep depression due to the fact that I can’t have baby. No one in my social circle understands it, neither do my family. I feel so alone and unhappy”, pleads one of my sister’s friend.
Female infertility is defined as a disease or condition of the reproductive system resulting in the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected, well-timed intercourse or the inability to carry a pregnancy to the delivery of a live baby.
There are two types of infertility in women. They are primary infertility which refers to a condition in which a woman has never been able to conceive; and secondary infertility in which the woman was successful in conceiving once but unsuccessful at the second time. Now let us take a look at the common reasons as to why the female is infertile.
1. Obesity – affects hormone production which thereby decreases ovarian function. Obese women at the age of 18 are sure to get Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) which is the most common and leading cause.
2. Being too lean – makes one’s periods irregular or even absent.
3. Getting older – due to perimenopause occurs, ovulation decreases and egg count declines.
4. Household chemicals – pesticides, pollutants, industrial wastes decrease pregnancy by 29% says a study.
5. Mother – women should ask their mothers about how old she was when she got her menopause. If she got early then probably their daughters too will. Every female is born with some amount of eggs. Certain genetic factors make them born with more or fewer eggs or use those eggs faster than an average woman.
6. Smoking – nowadays it is common among teenage and young adults. In the first place, smoking affects your chances of getting pregnant, in the second place it hurts the developing fetus. Even moderate smoking or second-hand smoking may damage endocrine function and lead to significant fertility issues. 13% of infertility cases are due to smoking.
7. Alcohol – few drinks a week won’t affect but heavy drinking leads to ovulation problems. A Swedish study tracked 7000 women for 18 years and found that heavy drinkers sought out fertility treatments. Drinking during early stage causes premature births.
8. Breastfeeding – it is a myth that pregnancy is impossible during breastfeeding but it is true that a woman nursing a child has trouble conceiving another one. A 2014 study from the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine shows that women who wait less than 18 months have a shorter pregnancy or preterm birth.
9. Exercise – a 2012 study published in Fertility and Sterility say that normal-weight women who exercise vigorously have a harder time getting pregnant. The obvious sign may be a change in menstrual cycle.
10. Birth Control – if a woman stops taking all forms of hormonal birth control she will become pregnant within a month.
11. Thyroid Disease – subclinical undiagnosed hypothyroidism have subtle effects on fertility of women.
12. Caffeine – interferes with muscle contraction that helps eggs travel from ovaries to the womb.
13. Medical Conditions – health issues like polycystic ovarian syndrome, endometrioses (endometrial tissue implants and grows outside the uterus leading to pregnancy complications), uterine fibroids (non-cancerous lumps in or outside a woman’s womb leading to heavy bleeding during pregnancy, frequent urge to urinate, painful sex and infertility in women) can affect women’s chances of getting pregnant. Also, a woman suffering from autoimmune disorders, have trouble conceiving since their bodies reject fertilized egg.
14. Sexual Infections – sexually transmitted disease like chlamydia or gonorrhea cause pelvic inflammatory disease and fertility problems even after many years a woman contracts them.
15. Stress – it is not only the problem but women who have trouble getting pregnant are adopting stress management programs. Perceived stress can certainly alter hormonal levels and ovulation.
16. Epileptics – reproductive abnormalities and fertility problems are common in epileptic females.
17. Unexplained Reasons – the causes are not clearly defined or identifiable that happens in 20% of infertility cases.
These may be overcome by using drugs to stimulate ovulation, surgery in some cases, intrauterine insemination and in vitro fertilization.
There is a unique pain that comes from preparing a place in your heart for a child that never comes. Those couples who have undergone this incomparable pain lament, “We wanted to write exactly what it is to lose a child, but for some reason, the page stayed empty. And we could not have explained it any better.”
All those who suffer out there my feeble advice will be ‘adopting a child may not change your world but for that child, the whole world may change.’
Morning after pill or emergency contraception pills are over the counter drugs available to prevent pregnancy within 72 hours of unprotected sex or intercourse. There are many popular brands available like i-pill and unwanted 72. They are very high dose of the hormone progestin/levonorgestrel which are known to prevent fertilization/conception by way of delaying to stopping ovulation.
Effectiveness of emergency contraception
If taken within 72 hours, emergency contraception pills are known to prevent pregnancy in 99% of the cases. The user need not to worry about pregnancy if she has consumed the medicine within the stipulated 72 hours.
Side effects of emergency contraception
As all the emergency contraceptive pills are very high dose of the hormones, they are known to cause certain side effects which are common to the early symptoms of pregnancy. This often leads the user confused and baffled that she might be pregnant. However, in most of the cases, it’s not the pregnancy, but the emergency contraception pill, which is producing the symptoms. The symptoms include the following:
- Abdominal pain
- Breast tenderness
- Delay in menstruation
- Occasional bleeding or spotting
- Weight gain
These side effects may continue for a month or two. The menstrual cycle may remain disturbed for next few months. In long run, being an steroid, these medicines cause substantial weight gain in the users.
Emergency contraceptives and STDs
Emergency contraceptive pills do not provide any protection from sexually transmitted disease like HIV, gonorrhoea or syphlis. Additional safety measures like condoms should be preferred for protection from such sexually transmitted diseases which could prove life threatening in long run.
Emergency contraception pills are not for regular use. Such high dose of hormone, if taken regularly might cause very serious side effects. So, they should never be used as regular method of contraception and should be avoided as far as possible.
hi, i take disetta to regulate my period, but i lost the pack on the Sunday that i was to take them, and did not find them until Tuesday, and have started taking them then. will that harm my menstrual cycle ?
Hello, I was diagnosed with pneumonia Saturday evening and was given Teva-Moxifloxacin 400mg to take for treatment. My menstrual cycle is like clockwork and always around mid month do I experience the fun. I just went to the bathroom and it looked like there was some pale pinkish/light red coloured blood…do I need to seek medical attention right now? When should I, if not now? What/Where could the source of the bleeding be coming from? Thank you for your help!
Hormone Therapy To Treat Cancer
We all are creations of God. God has blessed each one of us with unique qualities & features. Out of all the creations of God, A hormone therapy is a more basic term which refers to the administration of estrogen alone or the combination of estrogen & progestin therapy. Women is considered to be the most beautiful creation for the very fact that only a women have the quality to give birth to another being. Blessed with such a unique quality, fortunate are those who have the ability to give birth naturally. The process of giving birth to an offspring is influenced by many factors such as the health of the women, hormones, etc. There comes a stage in every woman’s life after which she loses the ability to bear children.
After an average age of 45 to 50, a woman’s menstruation cycle stops and she also loses the ability to bear children. During the menopause period, the body produces less of female hormones such as estrogen & progesterone. This reduction in the hormone levels will gradually cause the menstrual cycle to stop thereby lowering the chances of getting pregnant.
The sudden hormonal changes can result in various other symptoms that affect the health of the individual. It might cause troublesome symptoms such as the sudden sensation of warmth which may be associated with flushing or abnormal sweating, mood swings, vaginal dryness and sleep disturbances.
After the first 5 years of menopause, one might encounter progressive bone loss due to decreased levels of estrogen & progesterone hormones. Bone loss is very common among men & women as they age. This could be balanced by intake of vitamin D supplements. But, the post-menopause period puts an extra strain on bones in addition to usual age-related bone problems.
What do you mean by estrogen & hormone therapy?
An estrogen therapy alone may cause uterine cancer therefore to eliminate the increased risk of cancer a progestin is administered along with estrogen. Thus, estrogen or progestin therapy also known as EPT is a combination of estrogen & progestin therapy which is given to a woman having a uterus. The method of prescribing these hormones is also called as combination hormone therapy.
A hormone therapy is a more basic term which refers to the administration of estrogen alone or the combination of estrogen & progestin therapy. The hormone therapy uses a number of hormones to treat the symptoms of menopause. Most of the times, estrogen or progestin are used. Very rarely, testosterone is also added to treat menopause-related symptoms.
The symptoms of menopause include:
- Mood swings
- Less interest in sex
- Sleep disturbances
- Dryness in the female genital areas
- Abnormal body sweats at night
- Anxiety & emotional imbalance
While hormone therapy is used to treat a number of menopause symptoms it also has some risks associated with it. Those include:
- Blood clots in the arteries
- Chances of breast cancer
- Risks of heart diseases &
The hormone therapy comes in different forms. One will have to try different forms to find out the one that suits the best for you! The various forms of hormone therapy are as follows:
The Estrogen comes in the following forms:
- ¨ Skin gel
- ¨ Vaginal rings
- ¨ Vaginal creams or tablets that help overcome dryness or pain during the intercourse
- ¨ Tablets or pills are taken by mouth
- ¨ Skin patches applied to belly & thighs
Those women who have a uterus will have to take progestin pills along with estrogen to lower the risk of endometrial cancer. Women who have had their uterus removed no longer had to worry about uterine cancer and for this reason, only estrogen hormones will do for them.
The various forms of progestin or progesterone are as follows:
- Vaginal creams or tablets
- Skin patches
- Vaginal suppositories &
The type of hormone therapy that doctor implements on you will depend on the kind of symptoms you are suffering from. For instance, skin patches or pills can treat abnormal sweating at nights, on the other hand, vaginal creams, rings or tablets will help overcome vaginal dryness.
How do you take these hormones?
Unlike other tablets, you can’t consume these hormone pills in a manner that you wish to. Your healthcare professional will guide you with this. While taking both estrogen & progestin you will have to follow one of the following schedules.
- Cyclic hormone therapy: this is recommended at the initial stages of menopause. One may use the estrogen in the form of pills or skin patches for about 25 days. The progestin pills could be added between 10 to 14 days. You use a combination of both estrogen & progestin for a span of 2 days and then for about 3 days, you should not take hormones at all. Those who undergo cyclic hormone therapy might encounter monthly bleeding.
- Combined hormone therapy: this kind is preferred when you are asked to consume both estrogen & progestin together every day. Those who undergo combined hormone therapy will also encounter unusual bleeding during the initial stages of menopause. Some may have unusual bleeding when they switch to hormone therapy. Adopting this method will enable them to stop bleeding within a year or so.
If you are at high risk of osteoporosis or if you have severe symptoms of menopause then the doctor might prescribe you other medicines too! For example, the doctor might prescribe you a male hormone, testosterone, to improve your sex drive.
Possible side effects or risk factors associated with hormone therapy:
Most women undergoing hormone therapy would experience side effects in a due course of time. The side effects may be minor or major side effects. Some of the common side effects include nausea, headaches, breast pain, irregular bleeding, & mood swings. It is difficult to differentiate which symptom is due to estrogen component & which is due to progestin.
Some of the more serious health concerns for women undergoing hormone therapy are discussed below:
- HT might increase the risk of deep vein thrombosis (vein clots) & pulmonary embolus (blood clots in lungs). Healthy women need not worry about these conditions.
- Uterine cancer: women who have a uterus and use estrogen alone are at increased risk of uterine cancer. These days, doctors prefer a combination of estrogen & progestin to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer.
- Breast cancer: Recent studies showed that hormone therapy could also increase the risk of breast cancer however, the risk is very small. The risk of breast cancer increases with the duration of use and causes more risk with 5 or more years of use.
- Heart diseases: Hormone therapy lowers the bad cholesterol & increases the good cholesterol in women. However, it increases the risk of heart diseases in women. Especially in women, who have previous heart diseases have more risk of heart attacks.
- Abnormal vaginal bleeding: during the postmenopausal period, women might encounter abnormal vaginal bleeding. What is called as “abnormal” depends on the type of hormone therapy? With continuous therapy, the bleeding might last for 6 months to a year. If the bleeding lasts more than a year then it is called as abnormal bleeding.
- Hormone therapy also slightly increases the risk of stroke, according to a study.
Due to these risk factors such as breast cancer, uterine cancer, stroke & heart diseases most women who do not have major menopause symptoms would wish to avoid hormone therapy.
How is hormone therapy prescribed?
Doctors usually prescribe combinational hormone therapy. Long-term use of estrogen alone increases the risk of uterine cancer. The addition of progesterone counteracts the risk. Estrogen is available in the forms of pills, vaginal rings, vaginal tablets, or vaginal creams. Estrogen pills are also good for vaginal dryness which could be used along with tablets or creams.
Oral therapy: some women prefer to choose daily continuous therapy which involves small doses of estrogen & progestin together. They consume the small doses of hormones each day. For the first time users, it might cause unexpected or irregular bleeding.
Transdermal therapy (patches & spray mists): hormone therapy also uses skin patches for treatment. These patches need to be worn on daily basis and need to be changed once in 2 weeks. These patches are as effective as oral therapy for controlling hot flashes. Spray mists are available as transdermal sprays which can be used once in a day.
Who should & should not take hormone therapy?
- Women with high blood pressure and controlled by medication can undergo HT as it does not elevate blood pressure.
- Those who have a family history of breast cancer or uterine cancer will have a greater risk if not undergone HT.
- HT may be used in women with migraines or liver disease. But, certain types of HT cannot be used in women as it might aggravate these conditions.
- Women who have been already treated for coronary artery disease should not undergo HT.
Some facts about HT
- HT refers to either estrogen or a combination of estrogen & progestin.
- The term Hormone therapy or HT is used to replace the outdated term Hormone replacement therapy or HRT
- The use of estrogen without progestin increases the risk of uterine cancer.
- There are other safe & effective non-hormonal methods for treating women’s concerns regarding osteoporosis.
Medical checkups available for women on HT:
All women undergoing HT should have a medical checkup every year. The doctor will perform a mammogram test to get the x-ray images of the breast. This is used to check for the masses in the breast which might be cancerous cells. The women should also discuss the bleeding pattern with her physician to be sure if that is the expected pattern for her type of HT.
If a woman wants to do against the HT then there are many other ways to deal with the symptoms of menopause. Personal lubrication products such as water-soluble jelly may be applied to the vagina to avoid dryness.
With the present lifestyle and eating habits, we are very much aware of the deadly disease called cancer. Till date, we have not found the exact cause of cancerous cells being multiplied in our body. On the other hand, there is also another type of tumor cells which are noncancerous and do not multiple within called the fibroids.
What are fibroids?
Fibroids are the most frequently seen tumors of the female reproductive system. Made of smooth muscle cells & fibrous connective tissues, fibroids are firm & compact tumor cells that develop in the uterus.
It has been found that about 30-50% of the women in the reproductive age have fibroids although, all of which are not diagnosed. So, fortunately, in about 99% of the fibroid cases, the tumors are non-cancerous. These tumors are in no way associated with cancer and do not increase the risk of uterine cancer in women.
Uterine fibroids also called as leiomyomas or myomas are non-cancerous cells that develop in the uterus often during the pregnancy periods. They are not associated with the increased risk of uterine cancer and never develop into cancer.
Fibroids are undetectable by the human eye and often range from the size of a seedling to bulky masses that can distort or enlarge the uterus. You may develop a single fibroid or multiple ones. Sometimes, the fibroids may expand the uterus so much that it will reach the rib cage.
It is most commonly developed at the time of menopause as well. Most women do not know that they have uterine fibroids as it does not cause any symptoms.
Your doctor may detect the presence of fibroids at the time of pelvic exam or prenatal ultrasound.
What are some of the noticeable symptoms?
Most women with fibroids have no symptoms at all. Some develop mild symptoms while others have severe & disruptive symptoms. The following are the most common symptoms of uterine fibroids:
- Irregular menstrual periods
- Abnormal bleeding during menstrual periods
- Pelvic pain
- Frequent urination
- Pain in the lower back
- Pain during intercourse
- A firm mass located near the pelvic region
In some cases, irregular menstrual periods, or the abnormal bleeding between periods, can lead to iron-deficiency and result in anemia, which then requires treatment. The treatment for fibroids depends on the location, size & number of fibroids. However, these symptoms may differ from individual to another individual. A fibroid can cause acute pain when it gets less amount of blood supply and begins to die.
Fibroids are classified depending on their location.
Intramural fibroids develop in the uterine wall. Those fibroids that develop in the uterine cavity are called submucosal fibroids. The fibroids that project outside the uterus are called subserosal fibroids.
What causes fibroids in women?
Doctors do not know the exact reason of uterine fibroids. Researches & studies have found out the following to be the main causes of uterine fibroids. The causes include:
- HORMONES: the 2 main hormones, estrogen & progesterone that play a vital role in the development of uterine lining at the time of pregnancy or menstrual cycle are responsible for stimulating the growth of fibroids in the uterus. Fibroids contain a large number of these hormones than the normal muscle cells do. After the menopause, the amount of hormone secretion gradually reduces. As a result, the fibroids tend to shrink.
- GENETIC CHANGES: many fibroids contain changes in genes which are quite different from those in the normal muscle cells.
- OTHER GROWTH FACTORS: insulin-like growth factors that help the body to maintain tissues might affect the growth of fibroids.
The uterine fibroids develop from a stem cell in the smooth muscular tissue of the uterus. A single cell divides repeatedly forming a rubbery mass. The growth patterns of fibroids largely depend on person to person. The growth may appear slowly or rapidly. At times, it seems to remain in same size throughout.
What are the risk factors associated with uterine fibroids?
Other than being a woman of reproductive age, there are other risk factors associated with uterine fibroids. Other factors that influence the fibroid growth include:
- HEREDITY: if your mother or sister had one, then even you are at increased risk of developing a fibroid.
- RACE: Black women are more likely to have fibroids than women of other racial groups. They are likely to develop one at an earlier age and may also have fibroids of larger size.
Other complications that affect the growth of uterine fibroids are:
- Onset of menstruation at an early stage
- Use of birth control pills
- Vitamin D deficiency
- Diet higher in red meat & lower in green vegetables, fruits & dairy
- Excessive alcohol consumption
Fibroids do not interfere with getting pregnant. However, fibroids might cause infertility or loss of pregnancy. Other complications that result from fibroids include placental abruption, fetal growth restriction & preterm delivery.
How are uterine fibroids diagnosed?
Uterine fibroids are found during the pelvic exam. The doctor may observe some abnormalities in the shape of your uterus thereby suggesting the presence of fibroids.
Your doctor may suggest you take up the following tests:
- Ultrasound: Ultrasound is used to confirm the presence the fibroids. It uses sound waves to detect the presence of fibroids and also to measure its size and location. The doctor places the ultrasound device over your abdomen or places it inside your vagina to get the images of the uterus.
- LAB TESTS: if you have abnormal menstrual bleeding, then your doctor may suggest you take up a lab test to identify the potential cause. This might include complete blood count (CBC) to see if you are anemic due to abnormal blood loss and other types of blood tests to rule out issues like thyroid problems & bleeding disorders.
If the traditional ultrasound does not provide necessary information then the doctor might suggest other advanced imaging techniques. These include:
- MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI): this test helps to identify the size & location of fibroids, different types of tumors and also help with appropriate treatment options.
- HYSTEROSONOGRAPHY: this technique is also called as saline infusion sonogram. It makes use of sterile saline to expand the uterine cavity. This makes it easy to get images of the endometrium & the submucosal fibroids.
- HYSTEROSALPINGOGRAPHY: it makes use of a contrast medium or a dye to highlight the uterine cavity & the fallopian tubes so that these areas are well seen under an x-ray This helps the doctor to identify any abnormalities in the shape of the uterus. It helps not only in detecting fibroids but also to identify if the fallopian tuare open.
- HYSTEROSCOPY: in this medical procedure doctor inserts a small device called Hysteroscope through your cervix into the uterus. He then injects saline into the uterus, which expands the uterine cavity and allows the doctor to examine the uterine walls
What are the treatment options for uterine fibroids?
The noninvasive treatment procedures include:
Some of the minimally invasive procedures include:
Minimally invasive procedures include destroying the uterine fibroids without actually removing it through surgery.
Uterine artery embolization: the arteries supplying the uterus are injected with small particles. These particles will then prevent the blood flow to the uterine fibroids, thereby stunting its growth. In due course, it will shrink the fibroids and causes it to die. We need to be aware of the complications that might occur if the blood supply to other ovaries and organs are blocked.
Myolysis: it is a laparoscopic technique that uses radiofrequency energy, electric current & laser to destroy the fibroids. This technique also shrinks the blood vessels that feed them. Cryomyolisis is a similar procedure that freezes the fibroids.
Robotic myomectomy: in this technique, the doctor removes the fibroids without disturbing the uterus. If the fibroids are small and few in number, you and your doctor may opt for a laparoscopic or robotic procedure, which uses small instruments inserted through small incisions in your abdomen to remove the fibroids from your uterus. Another procedure called as morcellation is a method by which the fibroids are removed by breaking them into smaller pieces.
Hysteroscopic myomectomy: if the fibroids are present inside the uterus, then this method may be opted. The surgeon removes fibroids using instruments that are inserted through your vagina and cervix into the uterus.
Options for traditional surgical procedures include:
- Abdominal myomectomy.If you have multiple fibroids, very large fibroids or very deep fibroids, your doctor may use an open abdominal surgical procedure to remove the fibroids
- Hysterectomy: it is a major surgical procedure that involves the removal of the uterus to put an end to the uterine fibroids. It is a proven permanent solution for uterine fibroids.
In the next section of this article let us have a deeper look at the hysterectomy procedure.
Why is hysterectomy performed?
The doctor may suggest you undergo hysterectomy for the following reasons:
- Uncontrollable vaginal bleeding
- Chronic pelvic pain
- Fibroids which are tumors that grow in the uterus
- Cancers of uterus, cervix or ovaries
- Pelvic inflammatory diseases which are the main causes of infection in the reproductive organs
- Uterine prolapsed which occurs when the uterus drops through the cervix and comes out of the vagina
- Endometriosis, a disorder in the inner lining of the uterus that grows outside of the uterine cavity causing pain.
Hysterectomy is a safest and low-risk surgical procedure. However, it should not be used on all women who still wish to give birth in the future. Fortunately, many conditions that are treated with hysterectomy can also be treated by others ways. For instance, hormone therapy can be used to treat endometriosis and fibroids can also be removed by simple surgery. Hysterectomy is the only option when it comes to uterine or cervical cancer.
Types of hysterectomy:
- Partial Hysterectomy: during this procedure, only a part of your uterus is removed. The cervix is left intact.
- Total Hysterectomy: during this procedure, the entire uterus is removed along with the cervix. You will have to have regular pelvic examinations.
- Hysterectomy and salpingo-Oophorectomy: during this procedure, the entire uterus along with one or both the ovaries and fallopian tube is removed. One may need hormone replacement therapy if both the ovaries are removed.
How is hysterectomy performed?
Hysterectomy can be carried out in many ways. All the methods require general or local anesthesia. A general anesthesia will put you to sleep where as a local anesthesia will numb that particular area alone but you will still be awake. Sometimes anesthesia will be combined with a sedative so that you feel sleepy and relaxed throughout the procedure.
Abdominal hysterectomy: In this procedure, the uterus is removed through a large cut in the abdomen. The incision may be vertical or horizontal. Both these types will heal quickly and leave a scar on the surface.
Vaginal hysterectomy: In this procedure, the uterus is removed through a small incision in the vagina. There are no visible cuts and no scars seen on the outer body.
Laparoscopic hysterectomy: In this procedure, the doctor uses a small instrument called laparoscope. It is a long narrow tube, which consists of a high-intensity light and high-resolution camera to capture the images. These images will be displayed on the screen. In this, 3 or 4 incisions are made in the uterus instead of one large incision. The surgeon then cut the uterus into small pieces and removes one piece at a time.
What are the risks of hysterectomy?
This is considered to be the safest procedure. Any medical procedure has its own advantages and risks associated with it. Some of the risks associated with it are:
- Heavy bleeding
- Infection around the incision site
- Injury to bladder, intestines and surrounding blood vessels
Once the surgery is over you will be monitored for your heartbeat and breathing. If everything turns normal then you can be discharged. However, you will have to stay in the hospital for 3 to 5 days. Doctors will encourage you to do light exercises such as walking as it helps to prevent blood clots. If you have undergone vaginal hysterectomy, then you may experience bloody or brownish drainage from the vagina for 10 days. So using a menstrual pad is advisable.
Even after you are discharged, you should avoid doing certain activities such as pushing or pulling objects, bending, lifting heavy objects, sexual intercourse, etc
Recovery time is comparatively longer if one undergoes an abdominal hysterectomy. Complete recovery will take about 4 to 6 weeks.
Breast is Best: Points of interest of Breastfeeding
The proof is decisive: Breast milk is the best sustenance you can offer your infant. Breastfeeding offers enormous medical advantages to both mother and the child. It is uniquely intended to provide food for all your child’s dietary needs in the initial a half year of life. For most extreme advantages, breastfeeding ought to be started not long after the introduction of your child and ought to be kept up solely for a half year, until the point that weaning is started.
Also See: How to take Care of a Newborn Baby?
Advantages of breastfeeding for both mother and the child
1. Breast Milk Provides Ideal Nutrition for Babies
Most wellbeing specialists suggest select breastfeeding for no less than a half year.
Kept breastfeeding is then prescribed for no less than multi-year, as various sustenances are brought into the child’s eating regimen.
Breast drain contains everything the child requirements for the initial a half year of life, in all the correct extents. Its synthesis even changes as indicated by the child’s evolving needs, particularly amid the primary month of life.
Amid the main days after birth, the breasts deliver a thick and yellowish liquid called colostrum. It’s high in protein, low in sugar and stacked with gainful mixes.
Colostrum is the perfect first drain and enables the infant’s youthful stomach related track to create. After an initial couple of days, the breasts begin delivering bigger measures of the drain as the child’s stomach develops.
About the main thing that might need from breast drain is vitamin D. Except if the mother has a high admission, her breast drain won’t give enough.
To make up for this inadequacy, vitamin D drops are typically suggested from the age of 2– a month.
2. Breast Milk Contains Important Antibodies
Breast drain is stacked with antibodies that assistance your child fend off infections and microbes.
This especially applies to colostrum, the principal drain.
Colostrum gives high measures of immunoglobulin An (IgA), and also a few different antibodies.
At the point when the mother is presented with infections or microbes, she begins delivering antibodies.
These antibodies are then emitted into the breast drain and go to the child amid nourishing.
IgA shields the infant from becoming ill by shaping a defensive layer in the child’s nose, throat and stomach related framework.
Therefore, breastfeeding moms with seasonal influenza may really give their children antibodies that assistance them battle the pathogen that is causing the disorder.
In any case, on the off chance that you are sick, you ought to dependably rehearse strict cleanliness. Wash your hands frequently and endeavour to abstain from tainting your infant.
The equation doesn’t give immunizer insurance to babies. Various investigations demonstrate that infants who are not breastfed are more helpless against medical problems like pneumonia, loose bowels and contamination.
3. Breastfeeding May Reduce Disease Risk
Breastfeeding may decrease your infant’s danger of contaminations and numerous maladies, including hypersensitivity, celiac illness and diabetes.
5. Breastfeeding May Make Children Smarter
A few examinations propose there might be a distinction between mental health amongst breastfed and equation nourished infants.
This distinction might be because of the physical closeness, contact an eye to eye connection related to breastfeeding.
Studies demonstrate that breastfed babies have higher insight scores and are more averse to create issues with conduct and learning as they become more seasoned.
In any case, the most articulated impacts are seen in preterm babies, who have a higher danger of formative issues.
The exploration unmistakably demonstrates that breastfeeding has noteworthy constructive outcomes on their long-haul mental health.
6. Breastfeeding May Help You Lose Weight
While a few ladies appear to put on weight amid breastfeeding, others appear to easily get in shape.
Despite the fact that breastfeeding expands a mother’s vitality requests by around 500 calories for every day, the body’s hormonal adjust is altogether different from ordinary.
Due to these hormonal changes, lactating ladies have an expanded craving and might be more inclined to put away fat for drain generation.
For the initial 3 months after conveyance, breastfeeding moms may lose less weight than ladies who don’t breastfeed, and they may even put on weight.
Be that as it may, following 3 months of lactation, they will probably encounter an expansion in fat consuming.
Starting around 3– 6 months after conveyance, moms who breastfeed have been appeared to lose more weight than moms who don’t breastfeed.
The imperative thing to recall is that eating routine and exercise is as yet the most vital variables deciding how much weight you will lose, in the case of lactating or not.
7. Breastfeeding Helps the Uterus Contract
Amid pregnancy, your uterus develops enormously, growing from the measure of a pear to filling nearly the whole space of your belly.
After transfer, your uterus encounters a method called involution, which urges it return to its past size. Oxytocin, a hormone that augmentations all through pregnancy, helps drive this system.
Your body secretes high measures of oxytocin amid work to help convey the child and lessen dying.
Oxytocin likewise increments amid breastfeeding. It energizes uterine withdrawals and lessens dying, helping the uterus come back to its past size.
Studies have likewise demonstrated that moms who breastfeed for the most part have less blood misfortune after conveyance and speedier involution of the uterus.
8. Mothers Who Breastfeed Have a Lower Risk of Depression
Post birth uneasiness is a sort of hopelessness that can develop not long after work. It impacts up to 15% of mothers.
Women who breastfeed seem, by all accounts, to be less disposed to make post pregnancy nervousness, stood out from mothers who wean early or don’t breastfeed.
Be that as it may, the individuals who encounter post birth anxiety ahead of schedule after conveyance are likewise more inclined to experience difficulty breastfeeding and do as such for a shorter term.
In spite of the fact that the confirmation is somewhat blended, it’s realized that breastfeeding causes hormonal changes that empower maternal providing care and holding.
A standout amongst the most articulated changes is the expanded measure of oxytocin created amid birth and breastfeeding.
Oxytocin seems to have long haul against nervousness impacts. It likewise supports holding by influencing particular mind areas that advance sustaining and unwinding.
These effects may in like manner, for the most part, elucidate why breastfeeding mothers have a lower rate of maternal carelessness, diverged from the people who don’t breastfeed.
One examination found that the rate of maternal kid mishandle and disregard was just about three times higher for moms who did not breastfeed, contrasted with the individuals who did.
On that note, remember that these are just measurable affiliations. Not breastfeeding does not imply that you will disregard your infant in any capacity.
9. Breastfeeding Reduces Your Disease Risk
Breastfeeding appears to furnish the mother with long-haul insurance against malignancy and a few sicknesses.
The aggregate time a lady goes through breastfeeding is connected to a decreased danger of breast and ovarian malignancy.
Actually, ladies who breastfeed for over a year amid their lifetime have a 28% lower danger of both breast and ovarian malignancy. Every time of breastfeeding is related with a 4.3% diminishing in breast tumour chance.
Late examinations additionally show that breastfeeding may secure against metabolic disorder, a gathering of conditions that expansion the danger of coronary illness and another medical issue.
Ladies who breastfeed for 1– 2 years over their lifetime have a 10– half lower danger of hypertension, joint inflammation, high blood fats, coronary illness and sort 2 diabetes.
10. Breastfeeding May Prevent Menstruation
Kept breastfeeding additionally stops ovulation and period.
The suspension of menstrual cycles may really be nature’s method for guaranteeing there is some time between pregnancies.
A few ladies have even utilized this wonder as conception prevention for an initial couple of months after conveyance.
Nonetheless, take note of this may not be a totally powerful technique for anti-conception medication.
You may think about this change as an additional advantage. While you’re getting a charge out of valuable time with your infant, you won’t need to stress over “that time.“
11. It Also Saves Time and Money
To top the rundown, breastfeeding is totally free and requires next to no exertion.
Tips that can help to Breastfeed your Baby:
- Feeding your infant
While you and your child are getting started on the way toward breastfeeding, there are sure pointers you should remember. The correct advances enable you to guarantee the best procedure for both you and your child.
- The suckling nature
It’s the idea of an infant to suckle and to bolster. In any case, it might take you two a short time to get the hang of breastfeeding. So the sooner you put her to your breast, the sooner you’ll feel good.
- You can nurse immediately
Numerous moms nurture their infants out of the blue right in the conveyance room. The infant is generally caution and enthusiastic directly after birth. Additionally, the breast drains your child gets amid her first feedings called colostrum’s, which is brimming with contamination battling antibodies. Breastfeeding additionally discharges oxytocin, a hormone that helps shrivel the uterus back to its ordinary size post pregnancy.
- Unwind into your own style.
For an initial couple of long stretches of nursing, encouraging may last around 10 minutes. Each child and each nursing mother are unique. With time, you two will unwind into a bolstering style and timetable that is particularly your own. Here are few hints to make breast bolstering less demanding for you.
- Get settled:
Utilize loads of customary pads or a cushion exceptionally intended to help to breastfeed. Regardless of whether you are sitting up in a seat or bed or resting, you’ll require pads to help your back and arms.
- Position your infant right:
Hold your child near you with the goal that her entire body is confronting you and her head is in the hooligan of your elbow. It’s vital to convey your child to your breast as opposed to hanging over to convey your breast to her.
- Get your infant to open wide:
Cup your breast in your free hand and have a go at stimulating your child’s lower lip or button with your areola. When her mouth is completely open, tenderly convey her to your breast.
- Look for redress lock on
You’ll know your infant has hooked on accurately when her mouth covers a large portion of your areola (the caramel pink hover around your areola) and your areola is over the infant’s tongue. You’ll additionally see that her nose is straight up against your breast.
- Tune in for sucking:
Infants are known to nod off after a couple of tastes. So watch her jaw for sucking movements and listen intently to gulp or gulping clamours.
- Break the grip:
When you complete the bolstering, tenderly break the grip of the areola by putting a finger into the edge of your infant’s mouth. Gradually pull your child far from you.
- Feed the child when he/she’s eager:
Your infant will tell you when it’s a great opportunity to eat. She will be wakeful, caution, and smack her lips. In the event that you don’t see this unobtrusive signs, she may caution you by crying, which implies she’s been ravenous for some time. A few moms stress over not making enough drain. Keep in mind: How many drain your breasts create involves free market activity – the more you nurture, the more you make.
- Your infant’s nursing plan:
It’s typical to nurture your infant each one and a half to three hours for an initial couple of weeks. In the long run, the time between feedings may reach out to every 3 or 4 hours. For appropriate development and advancement, an infant, for the most part, needs to bolster around 8 to 12 times each day. With visit check-ups at the pediatrician’s office, you’ll know whether your child is developing and growing legitimately.
You can likewise check utilized diapers. Amid the principal month, your infant should wet 6 to 8 times each day and have no less than 2 solid discharges day by day.
Breastfeeding is the best procedure through which you build up an association with your infant. Take after the correct procedure, take the correct choices and guarantee well-being and joy for your infant.
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Contraceptives and their types:
A woman can get pregnant if a man’s sperm reaches one of her eggs.
Contraception tries to stop this happening by keeping the egg and sperm apart, or by stopping egg production, or by stopping fertilization attaching to the lining of the womb. Contraception is almost free for most people in the UK.
With 15 methods to choose from, you can find one that suits you best.
Barrier methods such as condoms are a form of contraception that helps to protect against sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy. You should use condoms to protect both your sexual health and that of your partner, no matter what the other contraception you’re using to prevent pregnancy.
What methods of contraception are available?
There are different methods of contraception:
- long-acting reversible contraception,
- hormonal contraception
- barriers methods,
- fertility awareness
- emergency contraception
- permanent contraception
There are about 15 methods of contraception. Don’t worry if the first type you used isn’t quite right. You still many ample options.
- ¨ Caps
- ¨ Combined pills
- ¨ Condoms- female
- ¨ Condoms- male
- ¨ Contraceptive implant
- ¨ Contraceptive injection
- ¨ Contraceptive patch
- ¨ Diaphragms
- ¨ Intrauterine devices
- ¨ Intrauterine Systems
- ¨ Natural family planning
- ¨ Progestogen-only pills
- ¨ Vaginal ring
- ¨ Female sterilization
- ¨ Male sterilization
Over years the number of contraceptive methods has greatly increased and the methods differ by how they work. There are
- ¨ Barrier methods- condoms or cervical cap
- ¨ Hormone methods- pills
- ¨ Intrauterine devices & sterilisation
Most types of contraceptives work by:
- a) Prevent an egg from being released every month (hormones)
- b) Prevent sperms from reaching the egg (barrier and some IUD methods)
- c) Block the reproductive function – in men or women (sterilization)
- d) Prevent a fertilized egg from implanting in the uterus (hormones)
What is long-acting reversible contraception?
A long-lasting reversible contraception usually last for a long time, you need to remember it every day or month.
There are two types of LARC:
- anintrauterine device that lasts five or more years
- animplant under the skin that lasts either three or five years.
These types of contraception last longer so are more effective at preventing pregnancy because you don’t have to worry about forgetting pills or a condom breaking or coming off.
They are “fit and forget” contraception.
Hormonal methods of birth control use hormones to regulate or stop ovulation and prevent pregnancy. Ovulation is the biological process in which the ovary releases an egg, making it available for fertilization. Hormones can be introduced into the body through various methods, including pills, injections, skin patches, transdermal gels, vaginal rings, intrauterine systems, and implantable rods. Depending on the types of hormones that are used, these methods can prevent ovulation; thicken cervical mucus, which helps block sperm from reaching the egg; or thin the lining of the uterus.
- Injectable birth control:
This method involves the injection of a progestin, given in the arm or buttocks once every 3 months.5 This method of birth control can cause a temporary loss of bone density, particularly in adolescents. However, this bone loss is generally regained after discontinuing use of DMPA. Most patients using injectable birth control should eat a diet rich in calcium and vitamin D or take vitamin supplements while using this medication.
- POPs progestin-only pills:
In this, a woman takes one pill each day probably at the same time. POPs may interfere with ovulation or with sperm function. POPs thicken cervical mucus, making it difficult for sperm to swim into the uterus or to enter the fallopian tube. POPs alter the normal cyclical changes in the uterine lining and may result in unscheduled or breakthrough bleeding. These hormones do not appear to be associated with an increased risk of blood clots.
- Contraceptive patch:
It is a thin plastic patch which sticks to the skin and releases hormones into the bloodstream. The patch is placed on the lower abdomen, buttocks, outer arm, or upper body. A new patch is applied once a week for 3 weeks, and no patch is used on the fourth week to enable menstruation.
- Vaginal ring.
The ring is thin, flexible, and approximately 2 inches in diameter. It delivers a combination of Ethinyl estradiol and a progestin. The ring is inserted into the vagina, where it continually releases hormones for 3 weeks. The woman removes it for the fourth week and reinserts a new ring 7 days later. Risks for this method of contraception are similar to those for the combined oral contraceptive pills. A vaginal ring may not be recommended for women with certain health conditions, including high blood pressure, heart disease, or certain types of cancer.
EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTIVE PILLS:
ECPs are hormonal pills that are taken as a single dose or 2 doses, 12 hours apart. They are intended to use in the event of unprotected intercourse. If taken prior to ovulation, the pills can delay or inhibit ovulation for at least 5 days to allow the sperm to become inactive. They also cause thickening of cervical mucus and may interfere with sperm function. ECPs should be taken as soon as possible after semen exposure and should not be used as a regular contraceptive method. Pregnancy can occur if the pills are taken after ovulation or if the woman has unprotected sex in the same cycle.
In this article, we will mainly focus on the 3 main types: IUD, Vasectomy (male contraception) & tubectomy (female contraception)
An intra-uterine device (IUD) is a small T-shaped birth control device which is usually made of plastic and wrapped with copper or hormones. This device is inserted into the women’s uterus to prevent pregnancy. A plastic string is tied to the end of the IUD that hangs down the vagina through the cervix. One can check if the IUD is in place by feeling this string. This string is also used by the doctors to remove the IUD.
TYPES OD IUDs:
There are 2 types of IUDs that are usually preferred. They are:
- ¨ Hormonal IUD
- ¨ Copper IUD
The hormonal IUD releases a form of progestin hormone called as levonorgestrel. This type of IUD is found to be the most effective form of contraception than the copper IUDs. They can prevent pregnancy for 3 to 5 years.
The copper IUD is the most commonly used IUD. A copper wire is wound around the stem of the T-shaped device. This can prevent pregnancy for 10 years.
Insertion & working of IUDs:
The insertion of IUD into the uterus is done with help of a specialized doctor. An IUD can be inserted anytime into a women’s body provided she is not pregnant or have a pelvic infection. The insertion procedure takes only a few minutes and sometimes an anesthetic may be given in the area around the cervix.
The main function of the IUD is to prevent the fertilization of the egg by killing or damaging the sperms. The hormonal IUD prevents the fertilization of the egg by killing or damaging the sperms. It makes the mucus in the cervix thick and sticky so that the sperm can’t get through the uterus. It also weakens the uterine lining so that it becomes a poor place for the fertilized egg to implant and grow. The hormone in this IUD also reduces the menstrual cramping and bleeding.
Copper is toxic to the sperm. The copper enables the fallopian tube and uterus to produce a fluid that consists of copper ions, enzymes, white blood cells and prostaglandins that kill the sperms.
When can it be done?
Women can undergo an IUD if she fits into one of the below categories;
- Do not have a pelvic infection at the time of insertion
- If a woman is breastfeeding
- If she is not prone to sexually transmitted diseases
- If she do not want to use birth control pills
- If she prefers a long-acting method of birth control
Advantages of IUDs:
The advantages of IUDs include:
- ¨ It is cost-efficient
- ¨ Less time-consuming method of contraception
- ¨ Lowers risk of ectopic pregnancy
- ¨ Reduces menstrual bleeding and cramps by 90%
- ¨ It may prevent endometrial cancer
- ¨ Do not cause weight gain
Disadvantages of IUDs:
- The hormonal IUD may give rise to non-cancerous growth such as ovarian cysts.
- It may cause hormonal side effects as that caused by oral contraception.
- The side effects include breast tenderness, mood swings, headaches, and acne.
Menstrual problems: the hormonal IUD reduces menstrual cramps and bleeding whereas the copper IUD increases menstrual cramps and bleeding. Some may also experience spotting between the periods.
Perforation: one out of 1000 women will strike in perforation. It almost occurs during insertion. The IUD should be removed if the uterus perforate.
Expulsion: about 1 out of 100 women may experience expulsion. The IUD may be expelled out of the vagina.
Tubectomy, also called as tubal ligation is solely meant for women. It is a surgical procedure of permanently preventing pregnancies. It is commonly called as, “getting your tubes tied” is a surgical sterilization technique for women. This procedure involves closing the fallopian tubes thereby stopping the eggs from traveling from the ovary to the uterus. It also prevents the sperms from entering the fallopian tube to fertilize the egg.
This surgical procedure is 99.5 % effective as birth control and works immediately. In the tubal ligation, the fallopian tubes are either cut or burned or blocked with clips. It does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases including HIV & AIDS.
The tubectomy can be carried out in 2 ways; one is by open surgery that is cut opening the abdomen and the other is a minimally invasive surgery using laparoscopic techniques. In this, the tubes are cut and tied or a clipped at a particular point so as to stop the motion of egg from the ovary to the uterus. This prevents the chances of getting pregnant.
Can the procedure be reversed?
As mentioned earlier this is a permanent technique but it can be reversed by undergoing major surgery. However, the results of that surgery are not at all guaranteed and reversals are more difficult and expensive. Performing tubectomy by microsurgery or laparoscopic techniques have higher chances of reversal but the chances of getting pregnant after the reversal are very minimal.
Women can enjoy sex as earlier even after tubal ligation. There are no noticeable changes in their menstrual cycle and hormone levels. The ovaries release eggs as earlier they are not pushed down the fallopian tube but are reabsorbed by the body itself.
Who should not get this procedure?
It is a complex surgery and is performed under general anesthesia. Certain people who suffer from the following should not undergo this procedure.
- Women who already have undergone surgeries in the abdomen
- Women who have heart and lung diseases
- Women who are allergic to general anesthesia.
Why is it more complex than a vasectomy?
It is definitely considered to be more complex than a vasectomy because women undergoing this surgery are prone to have more complications because it is a major abdominal surgery. In a vasectomy, the semi vesicles are cut. These tubes are much closer to the skin and do not require a major surgery. Also, these tubes can be accessed easily and be done under local anesthesia.
Women undergone tubectomy may develop bladder infections and abnormal bleeding. Some may have post-tubal sterilization syndrome. This includes irregular and painful periods, mid-cycle bleeding or no periods at all. Women who get pregnant after the reversal surgery have more chances of ectopic pregnancy.
- Immediately effective method of contraception
- Permanent birth control
- It is cost-effective in long run
- Allows sexual spontaneity as well
- Does not require regular attention
- Does not protect against Sexually transmitted diseases
- Requires major surgery
- There are complications associated with the surgery
- May not be reversible in some cases
- It is more complicated than male sterilization
Tubal ligation is permanent sterilization and one has to be mentally prepared before making a decision. A woman undergoing tubectomy is susceptible to have more complications since it is considered to be a major abdominal surgery. So one has to think wisely and consult a doctor before making a decision.
A vasectomy is a surgical procedure that is considered as a permanent birth control method. It is solely meant for men and makes him permanently unable to get a woman pregnant. It prevents the release of sperms when the man ejaculates. This procedure involves cutting or blocking the two tubes called as vas deferens. This makes it impossible for the sperm to enter the semen.
How is vasectomy performed?
During a vasectomy:
- The testicles and scrotum are shaved and cleaned with antiseptic.
- You will be given an oral or IV medicine that makes you sleep. So that you will not feel the pain.
The surgical procedure takes about one hour and you will be provided a local anesthesia to numb your scrotum. Once the area is numbed, the doctor makes a small hole on one side of the scrotum and pulls the vas deferens on the other side. The hole made is very small in size so that it heals by itself without stitches. A small portion of the vas deferens is removed and is sealed with clamps. This prevents the sperms from entering into the semen which then ejaculated through the penis. The testicles produce sperms continuously but it is reabsorbed by the body. The eggs cannot be fertilized if there are no sperms in the semen. The doctor then performs the same thing on the other side.
No-scalpel vasectomy is a technique that uses small clamps with pointed ends instead of a scalpel. These clamps are used to cut open the skin of the scrotum. This method is more beneficial as it causes less bleeding, only a small hole is made that heals by itself without stitches, and has fewer complications. This method is as effective as traditional vasectomy.
Vasclip implant procedure: In this procedure, a device called vasclip is used to lock the vas deferens. In this technique, the vas deferens is not cut which reduces the pain and complications of the surgery. However, studies show that clipping is not that effective compared to other methods of sealing the vas deferens.
How effective is vasectomy?
It is the safest and effective method of birth control. About 1 or 2 out of 1000 people might give rise to pregnancy after vasectomy.
Can a vasectomy be reversed?
Some vasectomies can be reversed but the surgery is very difficult and is more expensive. So, one should not undergo vasectomy unless he is sure not to have children in the future.
After the surgery;
Most men will return to the doctor to have a sperm count check but these days there is also home test available. A vasectomy will not interfere with the sex factor, ability to have an erection, sensation of orgasm, etc. one may have mild itching in the testicles during sexual intercourse for few months after the surgery.
Possible risks of the surgery: The complications are very minimal. It includes
- Bleeding under the skin which may cause swelling
- Infection at the site of the incision. In rare cases, the infection may enter into the scrotum
- Inflammation of the tubes that move the sperms from the testicles
- It is a permanent method of birth control
- It is safer, cheaper and also has fewer complications
- It is only a one-time cost and is usually covered with medical insurance
- It cannot prevent sexually transmitted diseases.
- There are complications associated with the surgery
- May not be reversible in some cases.
Vasectomy reversal is possible but is very difficult and expensive. The results of reversal are not guaranteed at all. So before one makes a decision, you will have to think wisely about the risks and complications of vasectomy as well as the benefits. You may also consult your doctor for a second opinion. So far there are no new methods with relatively lesser side effects and risks for male sterilization.
What are the natural methods of contraception?
Natural methods are typically very inexpensive compared to other methods of birth control unless a woman chooses to purchase ovulation test kits.
Advantages of natural birth control
- A woman does not need to take medication or use hormonal manipulation.
- No procedures or fittings by a physician are required.
Disadvantages of natural birth control include
- It can be difficult to estimate or know precisely when a woman is fertile, allowing increased chances for unplanned conception.
- Natural methods are not as effective as some forms of contraception.
- Ovulation test kits are used by some couples using natural methods of contraception, and the cost of these kits is another potential disadvantage.
- Being unable to have intercourse at certain times of the month is a disadvantage for some women.
Calendar rhythm method:
The calendar rhythm method to avoid pregnancy relies upon calculating a woman’s fertile period on the calendar. Based upon her 12 previous menstrual cycles, a woman subtracts l8 days from her shortest menstrual cycle to determine her first fertile day, and 11 days from her longest menstrual cycle to determine her last fertile day. She can then calculate the total number of days during which she may ovulate. If a woman’s menstrual cycles are quite irregular from month to month, there will be a greater number of days during which she might become pregnant.
The calendar method is only about 80% effective in preventing pregnancy and when used alone, it is considered outdated and ineffective.
Basal body temperature method:
The basal body temperature (BBT) method is based on the fact that a woman’s temperature drops 12 to 24 hours before an egg is released from her ovary and then increases again once the egg has been released. Unfortunately, this temperature difference is not very large. It is less than 1 degree F (about a half degree C) when the body is at rest.
The basal body temperature method requires that a woman takes her temperature every morning before she gets out of bed. A special thermometer that is more accurate and sensitive than a typical oral thermometer must be used, and the daily temperature variations carefully noted. This must be done every month. Online calculators are available to help a woman chart her basal body temperature.
To use the basal body temperature as a birth control method, a woman should refrain from having sexual intercourse from the time her temperature drops until at least 48 to72 hours after her temperature increases again.
Mucus inspection method:
The mucus inspection method depends on the presence or absence of a particular type of cervical mucus that a woman produces in response to estrogen. A woman will generate larger amounts of more watery mucus than usual (like raw egg white) just before the release of an egg from her ovary. This so-called egg-white cervical mucus (EWCM) stretches for up to an inch when pulled apart. A woman can learn to recognize differences in the quantity and quality of her cervical mucus by examining its appearance on her underwear, pads, and toilet tissue; or she may gently remove a sample of mucus from the vaginal opening using two fingers.
She may choose to have intercourse between the time of her last menstrual period and the time of change in the cervical mucus. During this period, it is recommended that she have sexual intercourse only every other day because the presence of seminal fluid makes it more difficult to determine the nature of her cervical mucus. If the woman does not wish to become pregnant, she should not have sexual intercourse at all for 3 to 4 days after she notices the change in her cervical mucus.
To in detail about other types of contraception or to know which type suits you the best, log on to Free Doctor Helpline or call us at +918010555444.