Category Archives: FirstAidPlus

3 years ago FirstAidPlus , Health

Childhood Infection

Childhood Infections

Introduction: Infection in child hood is very common due to undeveloped immunity or due to lack of immunity, when a child is in the womb of mother he or she gets immunity from his mother but after birth it is very tough to rid off form infectious diseases. There for vaccines are given to the child to protect from various communicable diseases.

Causing Agents: These childhood infections occur due to very small single cell prokaryotic organism e.g. bacteria or acellular (Virus) and some protozoa (eukaryotic unicellular organism).These are known as pathogen. This pathogen can be transmitted by carrier or by vector or may be directly from one infected person to another person.

Mode of transmission: These diseases are transmitted by many means first one is contaminated or unhygienic food and contaminated or not treated water e.g. Typhoid, Hepatitis B, Jaundice and cholera.  Last one is contaminated air, last one is the very potent mode of transmission in which pathogen can be transmitted by simply sneezing and coughing of the infected person and the healthy person can get infected by simply inhaling to those Pathogen.e.g. Tuberculosis,Chickenpox,Pneumonia etc.

There are so many child hood infectious diseases which are fatal for kids, here, a list of infectious diseases and there causing agents are given:

  1. Hepatitis B ————– Hepatitis B Virus,

  2. Whooping cough—— Bordetella pertussis

  3. Small pox—————- Variola virus

  4. Tetanus——————- Closteridium tetani,

  5. Polio———————– Polio virus

  6. Pneumonia ————– S. Pneumoniae

  7. Diptheria —————– Corynebacterium diphtheria,

  8. Measels——————- Paramyxovirus

  9. Mumps——————– Mumps virus

  10. Typhoid——————- S. typhi.

Prevention of diseases: To prevent these childhood diseases some precaution should be maintain for example personal hygine and sanatisation secondaly vaccination and third is immunization. Personal hygine and sanitization is not as much effective as vaccination and immunization as it does not provide immunity against pathogen only it prevents, while vaccination and immunization increase immunity and provides ability to fight against diseases, this type of immunization of a baby is called as active immunization. Active Immunization of a baby can be achieved by vaccinating them time to time of a time interval.

Some children also have allergic diseases which are non communicable occurs by immunogenic response of our body like respiratory diseases, red patches on skin and many more. The factors which are responsible for allergy is called as allergen e.g. dust, pollen, milk, egg, fish etc.

Apart from this common cold, cough, fever, cholera, dysentery and gastritis is also a common childhood infection which can be prevented by personal hygiene and sanitization of baby, also we should provide hygienic food to them to overcome from these problems, always cut their nails, wash their hands before and after meal, after use of washroom after sneezing and coughing and after playing with toy, normal shop solution or hand wash does not work on bacteria and other pathogen they only wash dirt and pollutant from our hand. To wash bacteria and other pathogen one should use hand wash which should contain at least 60% alcohol because it is a potent sanitizer works effectively.



3 years ago FirstAidPlus , Health

Giving new life to tooth by root canal treatment

The oh-so-terrifying sound of the treatment has scared many and has been a nightmare. The root canal treatment is the one dental procedure dreaded by many and is associated with pain and the people are generally running away from it. While actually, it is done to relieve the pain and protect the teeth. How you ask? Well, read on to find out!

A root canal treatment is an endodontic treatment, endo means inside and donto means tooth. This actually explains a lot about the process. It is actually done to as a treatment to repair a badly damaged or infected tooth by removing that damaged area of the tooth. It literally means cleaning the root canal and providing the required treatment.

A tooth has a space inside it which is called the pulp which is the soft area within the root canal. The tooth’s nerve lies within the root canal which has sensory functions. The pulp also includes blood vessels, nerves and connective tissues, which create the surrounding hard tissues of the tooth. Now when the pulp gets affected or there is inflammation there can be unbearable pain, swelling, and the irreversible damage to pulp. Even after the pulp dies or is damaged completely there is a risk of an abscessed tooth which would invite infection which can spread. It could also become a chronic threatening dangerous infection. Now the pulp may be damaged by any cause like a cracked tooth, deep cavity, gum infection, gum disease, repeated dental treatment to the tooth, or trauma to face.

And root canal treatment is the process or rather the apt treatment to this problem. The procedure involves the removing of the nerve and damaged pulp, cleaning the tooth, disinfecting it, and then filling it and sealing it. Thus, it is done to relieve the pain, protect the tooth and you, from further damage and giving a new life to the tooth.



Vaccination is a process of introduction of the vaccine in the body. Vaccine term was taken from the word Vacca which means cow in Latin and the first vaccine was prepared by Edward Jenner. It helps in the development of immunity, immunity which is developed by vaccination is known as adaptive immunity or acquired immunity .e.g Vaccination against polio, Smallpox, Hep. B, Pneumonia, Typhoid etc.

Vaccination can be done by one of the three methods by injection or by oral or by aerosol. The vaccine can be a drug because it fulfills all the criteria of the drug. Vaccines are more helpful and cost-effective public health measures that prevent many diseases, such as smallpox, chicken pox, rabbis and many more diseases.

Type of Vaccination

Vaccination chart

Vaccines are not occurring naturally they are prepared in the laboratory. When vaccines are introduced in our body they produce an antigenic response, and antibody starts work against the antigen, known as a primary immune response. Antibodies are protein molecule produced in our body against an antigen. There are many types of antibodies one of them is memory cell which is responsible for the secondary immune response of the immune system.

The secondary immune response is the response of our immune system when the same antigen attacks again then our antibody produces rapidly antibody and kill them. Antigens are foreign particles when enters in our body they produce an immune response, these antigens can be a living thing like protozoa, a virus, a bacteria or a non-living thing like dust particles or a pollen etc.

ClickChildhood Infection

Vaccines prevent many diseases, therefore, children are vaccinated for many diseases, children are vaccinated because they have a weak immune system at the time of birth or up to the age of 2 years. At the time of birth and up to six months, so vaccines are given to the baby e.g. HEp.B, Tetanus are given just after the birth of a child. After that in the interval of some time period, they are vaccinated. Some vaccinations are of one time while some are of 2, 3 and 4 times, which gradually increase the immunity of the child. Any person of any age can be vaccinated.

Vaccination is also known as immunization since it provides immunity against diseases.

Also read: Calcium intake is important for elderly ladies

3 years ago FirstAidPlus , Health

Tips to prevent Heart Disease in Women

Heart Disease / Cardiovascular Disease are a class of diseases that affects the heart and blood vessels many of which are related to a process called Atherosclerosis. Heart Diseases is the number one killer of women, learn how to protect yourself or someone you love.

  1. Start Healthy Habit now –

Research indicates that women who lead a healthy lifestyle before the age of 50 have a better chance of avoiding heart disease and the conditions that increase the risk of it – such as diabetes and hypertension.


  1. Get your Checkup –

Some factors that increase your risk for heart disease – including high cholesterol – have no symptoms. Get regular checkups that include a blood cholesterol test. Everyone should have their cholesterol checked annually starting at age 20.


  1. Don’t Smoke –

Smoking can increase your risk of cardiovascular disease by two to four times.


  1. Drink responsibly –

Drinking alcohol in moderation – particularly wise – can reduce your risk of dying from heart disease by 25%. For women, moderation means just one drink per day.


  1. Brush your Teeth –

The bacteria that grow in your mouth and cause gum disease may double the risk for a heart attack. Regular brushing and flossing can sweeten your breath and improve your health.


  1. Have Sex, but be safe –

Research suggests that people who have sex at least twice a week are less likely to develop heart disease. But proceed with caution and condom. A recent study found a tie between Human Papillomavirus Infection (HPV) – a sexually transmitted infection – and heart disease.


  1. Choose your Birth Control wisely –

Birth Control Pills can increase your risk of a heart attack and blood clots. Some types of the pill have been shown to increase the risk of blood clots by up to 65% over other formulas, especially in women who have a high BMI or those who smoke.


  1. Skip the Soda –

Studies have shown that women who drink two or more sugar – sweetened beverages such as soda per day have a higher risk of heart disease.


  1. Relax –

Prolonged exposure to the stress hormone cortisol can damage your arterial linings, making it harder for your heart to do its job.


  1. Stay Active –

Your heart needs regular workouts in order to keep it healthy, even if you have a healthy BMI. As little as 30 minutes of moderate activity per day can reduce your risk for heart disease.

3 years ago FirstAidPlus , Medical

How Hepatitis C Affects Your Body?

Hepatitis C is a viral disease that primarily causes inflammation of the liver, but the effects can be felt throughout the body. It’s a blood borne disease, which means its spread when the blood of a person infected with the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) enters the blood stream of someone else.

  1. Hepatitis C in the Liver –

Hepatitis C causes inflammation of the liver. Overtime, this leads to scaring and severe damage to the liver and its functions. Eventually, the liver loses its ability to work at all.


  1. Fluids in the Stomach –

If the liver doesn’t produce enough albumins, fluid can build up in the stomach, causing pain and discomfort.


  1. Gallbladder Grief –

The gallbladder stores bite and helps to break down fats from your food. An inflamed gallbladder can cause severe pain.


  1. Insufficient Intestines –

The intestines absorb vitamins, minerals, and nutrients from the food you eat. That becomes more difficult when the liver can’t produce bile.


  1. Toxic Build – Up in the Brain –

A build – up of toxins in the brain can lead to mental confusion, moodiness, and slurred speech. Untreated, some patients may enter a comatose state.


  1. Musty Mouth –

A build – up of toxins in the central nervous system can cause the breath to have a sweet or musty odor.


  1. Bad Blood –

A poorly functioning liver fails to remove toxins from the bloodstream, which can lead to a wide range of complications.


  1. Skin and Eyes –

Hepatitis C can cause jaundice, which makes the skin and the whites of the eyes turn yellow.


  1. Thyroid –

An immune system trying to protect the body from Hepatitis C may mistakenly attack thyroid cells. Fatigue and general sluggishness are common symptoms of thyroid disorders.


3 years ago FirstAidPlus , Liver , Medical

What is Hepatitis ?

Hepatitis is a term that refers to inflammation of the liver.It’s commonly because of a viral infection, however there are different feasible reasons of hepatitis. those include autoimmune hepatitis and hepatitis that happens as a secondary reaction of medicinal drugs, tablets, toxins, and alcohol. Autoimmune hepatitis is a disorder that happens while your body makes antibodies in against to your liver cells.

Your liver performs many critical functions that affect metabolism for the duration of your body, including:

  • Excretion of bilirubin (a product of broken-down Red blood cells), cholesterol, hormones, and medicine
  • Breakdown of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
  • Synthesis of clotting factors
  • Activation of enzymes, which can be specialized proteins essential to body features
  • Bile production, which is crucial to digestion
  • Storage of glycogen (a form of sugar), minerals, and vitamins (A, D, E, and okay)
  • Filtering of toxins from your body
  • Synthesis of blood proteins, along with albumin

According to “Global Burden of diseases study 2015” worldwide around 600 million people are affected from this diseases and according to central disease control and prevention (CDC) about 5million people in America are affected from this disease. And worldwide there are also many others who still don’t know that they have hepatitis.

It’s treatment depends on its type and Treatment vary depending on which type of hepatitis you affected. We can prevent some form of hepatitis by precautions and vaccination.

Hepatitis Viral in the world

Hepatitis Viral in the world

Type of Hepatitis 

Hepatitis is a term that refers to inflammation of the liver. Among the three most common strains of viral hepatitis in the India – Hepatitis A, B & C – each virus has similar symptoms. However, strains differ by the mode of transmission and how the specific virus affects the liver. It can be caused by – Genetic Diseases, Medications (including over the counter), Alcohol and Hepatitis Viruses.

Hepatitis A

Modes of Transmission –

Ingestion of fecal matter, even in microscopic amounts, from :

  1. Close person – to – person contact with a Hepatitis A – infected person.
  2. Sexual contact with a Hep. – A infected person.
  3. Contaminated food or drinks.
  4. Contaminated drug paraphernalia (works).

Risk Activities –

  1. Travel to countries where Hep. – A is common.
  2. Sexual contact with a Hep. – A infected person.
  3. Use of illegal drugs (injection or non – injection).
  4. Living with a clotting factor disorder.

Prevention Methods –

  1. Hepatitis A vaccination.
  2. Immune globulin.
  3. Proper hand washing with soap after the use of toilets and changing diapers, and before preparing and eating food.

Treatment Option –

  1. Provides supportive treatments (for e.g. bed rest).
  2. No Hep. – A specific medications are available.


Hepatitis B

Modes of Transmission –

Contact with infectious blood, semen and other bodily fluids, primarily through :

  1. Birth from a Hepatitis – B infected mother.
  2. Sexual contact with a Hep. – B infected person.
  3. Sharing needles, syringes or drug paraphernalia (works).
  4. Needle sticks or sharp instrument injuries.

Less commonly through :

  1. Tattooing / body piercing.

Risk Activities –

  1. Birth from a Hep. – B infected mother.
  2. Sexual contact with a Hep. – B infected person.
  3. Multiple sexual partners.
  4. Living with a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD).
  5. Injection drug use.
  6. Living with a Hep. – B infected person.
  7. Occupational exposure to blood.
  8. Long term hemodialysis.
  9. Living or working in a setting that houses developmentally disabled individuals.

Prevention Methods –

  1. Hep. B vaccination.
  2. Immune globulin.
  3. Hep. B screening during each pregnancy.
  4. For infants born to Hep. – B infected mothers, immune globulin dosage and vaccine within 12 hours of birth.
  5. Use of condoms for sex.
  6. Not sharing personal care items (e.g. razors, toothbrushes).
  7. Not sharing needles, syringes or drug paraphernalia (works).
  8. Ensure use of sterile equipment for any tattoo or body piercing.
  9. Proper infection control in health care settings and public safety work.

Treatment Options –

  1. For acute Hep. B, provide supportive treatment.
  2. For chronic Hep. B, provide regular monitoring for signs of liver disease progression and consider antiviral medication.

Read more >> Hepatitis B


Hepatitis C

Modes of Transmission –

Contact with infectious blood, primarily through :

  1. Sharing needles, syringes or drug paraphernalia (works).

Less commonly through :

  1. Sexual contact with a Hepatitis C infected person.
  2. Birth from a Hep. C infected mother.
  3. Needles stick or sharp instrument injuries.
  4. Tattooing / body piercing.

Risk Activities –

  1. Current or past injection drug use.
  2. Receipt of blood or organs prior to July 1992.
  3. Receipt of clotting factor concentrates before 1987.
  4. Long term hemodialysis.
  5. Occupational exposure to blood.
  6. Birth from a Hep. C infected mother.

Prevention Methods –

  1. Not sharing needles, syringes or drug paraphernalia (works).
  2. Use of condom for sex.
  3. Not sharing personal care items (e.g. razors, toothbrushes) ensure use of sterile equipment for any tattoo or body piercing.
  4. Proper infection control in health care settings and public safety work.

Treatment Options –

  1. For acute Hepatitis C, provide supportive treatment and consider antiviral medication.
  2. For chronic Hep. C, provide regular monitoring for signs of liver disease progression and consider antiviral medication.

read more >> hepatitis C 

3 years ago FirstAidPlus , Health

Fungal infection: Causes, types, symptoms and treatment

Fungal skin infections are caused by different types of fungi, including dermatophytes and yeasts. Fungi invade and grow in dead keratin. Keratin is a protein that makes up your skin, hair and nails.

Common fungal skin infections are caused by yeasts (such as Candida—see Candidiasis) or dermatophytes, such as Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton (see Overview of Dermatophytoses (Ringworm, Tinea)). Many such fungi live only in the topmost layer of the epidermis (stratum corneum) and do not penetrate deeper.

How do you get foot fungus?

It causes peeling, redness, itching, burning, and sometimes blisters and sores. Athlete’s foot is a very common infection. The fungus grows best in a warm, moist environment such as shoes, socks, swimming pools, locker rooms, and the floors of public showers. It is most common in the summer and in warm, humid climates.

What increases the risk of Vaginal fungal infection?

Many things can raise your risk of a vaginal yeast infection, such as:

The imbalance that allows the overgrowth of yeast can happen due to:
  • antibiotics (they lower the amount of lactobacillus, or good bacteria, in vagina)
  • pregnancy.
  • uncontrolled diabetes.
  • weak immune system.
  • douching.
  • poor eating habits, including a lot of sugary foods.
  • hormonal imbalance near your menstrual cycle.
  • stress.
  • Lack of sleep.
  • Poor eating habits, including eating extreme amounts of sugary foods.
  • Taking certain medicines, including birth control pills, antibiotics, and steroids.


Fungal infection Requires a medical diagnosis by a skin specialist.

Symptoms depend on the area affected, but can include skin rash or vaginal infection resulting in abnormal discharge.

People may also experience darkening of the skin, loss of color, peeling, rashes, or small bump. itching or vaginal discharge is also common.

Treatment of fungal infection:

Antifungal creams, liquids or sprays (topical antifungals) These are used to treat fungal infections of the skin, scalp and nails. They include clotrimazole, econazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, tioconazole, terbinafine, and amorolfine.

Diet during fungal infection:

Eat a healthy balanced diet – limit your intake of yeast and sugar and drink plenty of water to help clean your system of impurities. Eat yogurt – Yogurt contains active cultures that can help restore the good bacteria your body requires. Coconut oil, garlic, ginger, onion and lemon juice also helps body in fighting fungal infection.

3 years ago FirstAidPlus , Health

Honey for sore throat

Honey for Sore Throat

Is honey really good for sore throat? Yes, it is as it is located with antibacterial properties. It helps in the fast healing of sore throat. Honey works best when treated with ginger, warm water, milk, pepper and lemon. Raw Honey gives you the best results for sore throat in a couple of days. Let’s have a look at the many benefits of honey for sore throat.

Honey with Ginger –

Take half inch ginger and wash it thoroughly to remove the dirt. Slice the ginger into small pieces after removing the rough skin of it. Boil water in a medium flame, and then add the ginger paste to it. Allow it to boil for 3 to 4 minutes. Add 2 tablespoon of honey to it. You can filter and drink the liquid if you don’t want the small strains of ginger in the liquid. Drink it warm.

Honey with Warm Water –

Boil water in a pan in normal flame. Add 2 to 3 tablespoon of honey to it and stir well. Drink it warm and it will decrease your sore throat symptoms.

Honey with Cinnamon Water –

Boil water in a pan in normal flame. Boil 1 glass of water in medium flame for 10 minutes. Now add cinnamon sticks to it and close the lid. Add honey to it at the end and drink the tea. It will help you to get rid of sore throat and the infections.

Honey with Milk –

Boil 1 glass of milk and make it warm. Add 2 tablespoon of honey to it. Drink it warm. It will give a soothing effect to your sore throat. Avoid giving honey to children under 1 year of age.

Honey with Lemon –

Boil 1 glass of milk and make it warm. Add 2 tablespoon of honey to it. Drink it warm. It will give a soothing effect to your sore throat.

Honey with Honeysuckle Flowers –

Take a handful of fresh honeysuckle flowers in a container. Add 1 quarter of water to the container. Boil them for 10 minutes. Strain and then add honey to it. Drink the concoction to get relief from sore throat.

Honey with Cayenne Pepper –

Take ½ tablespoon of cayenne pepper. Add the cayenne pepper to 1 glass of water and boil for some time. Add 1 tablespoon of honey to it and stir it well until the cayenne pepper dissolves in the water completely. Use less amount of cayenne pepper      if you are very sensitive to spices. Drink this for sore throat.

Honey with Apple Cider Vinegar –

Make 1 cup of warm water. Add 1 tablespoon of apple cider vinegar to it. Add 1 tablespoon of honey to the warm water. Now drink it to soothe your sore throat.

Consume Raw Honey for relief-

Take 1 to 2 tablespoon of raw honey at night before going to bed. Raw honey will ease out and cure your sore throat fast. Avoid over consumption of raw honey.

3 years ago FirstAidPlus , Health

Warning signs of Vitamin D deficiency

About half of the India Population is deficient in Vitamin D. Proper Vitamin D3 levels can reduce cancer risks up to 80%. Vitamin D3 levels are easily monitored by a simple blood test. Taking 5,000 I.U. a day is a safe amount for continued good health, as suggested by medical experts.

  1. Aching Bones –

If you suffering from aches and pains, you may be deficient in Vitamin D. Calcium is not easily absorbed in the body without proper levels of Vitamin D, causing painful aches and uncomfortable throbbing throughout the skeletal system. This essential vitamin also helps to avoid tooth decay.


  1. Muscle Weakness –

Harvard researchers have found that those with low D levels experience muscle weakness, especially those over 60. The Western Journal of Medicine reports that D – related muscle weakness can be remedied by taking the supplement for just six months.


  1. Depression –

Studies have shown that people with low D levels, are more commonly affected by depression and Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). The hormone, serotonin, drops when adequate amounts of Vitamin D are not present in the body. This also accounts some women experiencing Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS).


  1. Head Sweats –

One of the classic symptoms of low Vitamin D is to have head sweats. This has been a cue for low D levels for years. In fact, pediatricians use this symptom to help determine if newborn babies are low in Vitamin D.


  1. Chronic Health Problems –

If you’re always getting sick and are affected by seasonal allergies, you may have low D levels. Research has shown that healthy Vitamin D levels play a huge role in fighting diseases and cancer.


  1. Constantly Tired –

If you’re chronically exhausted, but aren’t sure why, it may be that you need to up your intake of Vitamin D. Researchers suspect that chronic fatigue syndrome is related to deficient levels of D. some studies have shown that when adequate level of D are taken, exhaustion often subsides.


  1. Dark Skin –

People who are dark skinned commonly have low Vitamin D because their skin acts as a natural sunscreen which blocks the body’s ability to absorb it from the sun. In order to get enough D, it’s very important to take this vitamin in supplement from every day to protect your health.

3 years ago FirstAidPlus , Health , Medical

Bird flu: Symptoms, Treatments and Prevention

What is Bird Flu?

Bird Flu, or Avian Influenza, is an infectious disease of birds caused by Type A strains of the influenza virus. Domestic poultry such as chickens and turkeys most susceptible. The virus that causes Bird Flu H5N1, is lethal. It has killed more than half of the people infested, including healthy adults. Most of the people infested so far are believed to have caught the virus directly from sick birds. If Bird Flu mutates so that it is transmissible human to human, the number of deaths could reach into the millions.

How Does Bird Flu spread?

  1. From another Bird.
  2. If come into contact with dirt, cages, or any surfaces that have been contaminated by sick birds.
  3. If birds’ infected feces and saliva get on farming equipment, like tractor wheels, clothing and cages.

How can you protect yourself?

  1. In most places, there is no immediate threat to humans from Bird Flu.
  2. The best way to protect yourself is by doing the same things you do to protect yourself from any contagious illness.
  3. Thoroughly wash your hands with soap and water.
  4. Take proper food safety precautions.

Symptoms of Bird Flu

  1. Muscle aches
  2. Sore throat
  3. Fever
  4. Chest pains
  5. Breathing problems
  6. Headache

What should do in Flu?

  1. Rest
  2. Drink plenty of liquids.
  3. Avoid using alcohol and tobacco.
  4. Consult local doctor to take medication to relieve the symptoms of flu.
  5. Antiviral Medications can also be used to prevent the flu.

Treatment of Bird flu:

Treatments vary in their approach depending upon the symptoms of the patient. Body is kept hydrated to deal with the loss of salt and water caused due to diarrhea. Paracetamol is given to lower high fever and head ache. In most cases, treatment with antiviral medication such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu) or zanamivir (Relenza) can help reduce the severity of the disease.

Prevention of Bird flu:

The best way to prevent infection with bird flu is to avoid sources of exposure whenever possible. Most human infections have occurred due to direct close or prolonged contact with sick or dead infected poultry.

Note: Bird Flu is not a Threat!!! You cannot get Bird Flu from properly handled and cooked poultry and eggs.

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