Most often when a woman is not able to conceive or is not getting pregnant, then it is predicted that the women are infertile. However, men play an equally important role in the process of fertilization. Around 1 in every 5 infertile couple, the reason is the fertility issue of men. Low sperm count in men can be one of the major reasons for this infertility. Around 90% of the times, the reason for male infertility is the problem of low sperm count. As a couple, struggling to conceive for one’s own child is really a frustrating experience and a concern.
Facts to know:
- The condition when your sperm counts are low, i.e., less than 15 million sperm/ml are medically termed as oligospermia.
- In case sperms are found totally missing and your semen sample is tested to have no sperms at all, then that condition is medically termed as azoospermia.
- During your struggle to conceive or having a child, knowing the count of your sperms that you ejaculate during the process may be quite important.
- A total sperm count of 20 million or more is a healthy count.
- 40% or more of your total sperms moving in the forward direction indicates a healthy percentage of mortality rate.
- Shapes of sperms that consists of an oval head of around 5 to 6 micrometres long and having only one long tail are as healthy sperms.
Treatments & Preventions for the Low Sperm Count:
The treatment process depends on the cause and level of complications associated with the problem. However, few of the common treatments are listed below:
- Medications like anabolic steroids, etc. as prescribed by the doctors
- Antibiotics may be prescribed
- Hormonal treatments as per the prescribed medications or drugs
- Regularizing the sexual intercourse process
- Avoiding usage of lubricants
- Maintain a healthy weight and lifestyle
- Keep away from excessive heat
- Stay away from excessive smoking and alcohol consumptions
- Try to manage your stress levels
It is to be noted that both you and your partner must get yourselves tested for fertility even if you already show the symptoms of low sperm count. Later, in case it is detected that you have a low sperm count, still, you should not lose your hope because at times the sperm counts may also get boosted with the right intake of vitamins and other supplements. Otherwise, if the cause of low sperm count is the presence of some hormonal problem in your body, then going for a surgery or a replacement therapy can be helpful.
Apart from this, today there are various other options also available for infertile couples who are unable to increase their sperm count. They may anytime opt for an In vitro fertilization (IVF) or go for an adoption process. Whatsoever is the situation, consulting with your doctor is always the best option to pamper yourself and your partner.
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Melania Trump had a surgery for a benign kidney condition.
First lady Melania Trump, who is 48 now underwent a kidney embolization surgery at Walter Reed National Military Center in mid of the May month this year. Donald Trump tweeted it surgery was successful with no complications. But the First lady remained at the Maryland hospital for a week to prevent complications. Giving privacy a priority white house did not provide any clue about the procedure or condition.
What is Embolization?
Blocking blood vessels to block blood flow to an area is what embolization. Usually, medications, synthetic materials called embolic agents are placed in blood vessels to block the blood flow.
This technique is used to prevent abnormal bleeding, to close off blood vessels supplying blood to a tumour, to eliminate abnormal connections between arteries and veins or to treat aneurysms. Embolization is found to be more effective than surgery to control the blood flow.
So, for Melania Trump embolization was done to stop the growth of a benign tumour. Some tumours can bleed because they have a lot of blood vessels in them. Through embolization, we can stop blood and oxygen flow to a tumour to cease its growth.
How does this procedure work?
Catheters and guide wire are used to gain access to the organ. The position of correct artery or vein is located by Digital subtraction angiography ( DSA ).these images are used as a map to gain access to the right vessel.
This procedure takes 30 minutes to hours it totally depends on the complexity of the condition. Generally, patients are asked to stay in bed for 6 to 8 hours after the procedure.
Most commonly embolization procedure is used for angiomyolipoma. This is a benign growth in the kidney which has fat and cystic components in it. Benign tumours can be bad, though as they can cause obstructions and infection and other problems. Kidney embolization may cause side effects like fever, pain at the injection site or pain in kidney.
Angiomyolipoma is not common but occur in middle-aged women and can cause bleeding if they increase in size says Dr. Keith Kowalczyk of Medstar Georgetown University Hospital.
The procedure is minor enough in which local anaesthesia is needed. It will be inserted in the treatment site. Surgeons map the area that they want to treat and puncture the blood vessels from outside. They send a tube to reach the vessels. Through that tube, they send material like gelatin or platinum coils to block the blood supply in the required area. In this way will not be able to reach tumours which stop their growth.
Benefits of embolization
- It helps to control bleeding in emergency situations.
- Success rates in women were found to be more than 83%, who were treated with embolization for uterine fibroids.
- Through this method, we can treat tumours and vascular malformations that cannot be removed surgically.
- This method is less invasive than open surgery. With less blood loss and no obvious surgical incision.
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Throat cancer is a disease in which cancer cells develop in an anomalous way in the throat. The throat is the empty tube that keeps running from behind the nose and mouth, down the neck, to the opening of the throat and windpipe.
Disease happens when cells in the body (for this situation throat cells) isolate without control or request. Ordinarily, cells partition in a directed way. In the event that phones continue separating wildly when new cells are not required, a mass of tissue frames, called a development or a tumour. The term growth alludes to harmful tumours, which can attack adjacent tissues and spread to different parts of the body. A favourable tumour for the most part does not attack or spread.
A person suffers from Throat Cancer when cancerous tumours develop in the tissues of throat or pharynx, voice box or larynx or tonsils. Most of the throat cancers are squamous cell carcinomas. Also called Pharyngeal cancer.
Stages of Throat:
If you are in a more advanced stage, then chemotherapy may be given with the combination of surgery and or radiation.
Stage 0: The cancer is not invasive yet, so it can be treated by removing the affected tissue.
Stage 1-2: In this stage surgery, radiation, therapy or both are recommended.
Stage 3-4: In this stage of the cancer radiation, surgery and/or chemotherapy.
When you get a diagnosis of laryngeal cancer, it’s natural to wonder what may have caused the disease. Doctors can’t always explain why one person gets laryngeal cancer and another doesn’t.
However, we do realize that individuals with certain risk components might be more probable than others to create laryngeal cancer. A risk factor is something that may expand the possibility of getting a disease. Smoking tobacco causes most laryngeal cancers. Substantial smokers who have smoked tobacco for quite a while are most in danger for a laryngeal tumour. Additionally, individuals who are substantial consumers will probably create laryngeal disease than individuals people who don’t drink liquor.
Symptoms of Throat Cancer:
- A change in your Voice
- Sore throat
- Weight Loss
- Persistent Cough (may cough up blood)
- Constant need to clear your Throat
- Ear pain
- swollen lymph nodes in the neck
Radiation therapy uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells. It’s an option for people with any stage of laryngeal cancer. People with small tumours may choose radiation therapy instead of surgery. It may also be used after surgery to destroy cancer cells that may remain in the area.
The radiation comes from a large machine outside the body. You may go to the hospital or clinic once or twice a day, generally 5 days a week for several weeks. Each treatment takes only a few minutes.
Cancer Chemotherapy utilizes medications to slaughter tumour cells. The medications that treat laryngeal growth are typically given through a vein (intravenous). The medications enter the circulatory system and go all through your body Chemotherapy and radiation treatment are frequently given in the meantime. Chemo has its dangers; the basic symptoms of chemo incorporate sickness, loss of hunger, male pattern baldness, exhaustion, fever and agony. There could be enduring symptoms, for example, memory misfortune, heart issues and danger of future disease. A few people need to remain in the healing centre during treatment. The side effects depend mainly on which drugs are given and how much.
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Cancer begins when the healthy body cells change and grow out of control, from a tumour. This tumour can be both benign and malignant. 80% of primary liver cancer is hepatocellular carcinoma. the other types of cancer include bile duct cancer, and angiosarcoma, defined as the cancer of the blood cells in the liver. Hepatocellular carcinoma begins in hepatocytes, the main functional cells of the liver.
A rare type of liver cancer occurring in young patients is the fibrolamellar carcinoma, grows more invasively, characterized by a prominent central scar, diagnosed by imaging techniques.
The types include:
- Tumour developing in the liver, but have originated from another organ like colon, stomach, ovary, they are called liver metastasis or secondary liver cancers
- Cancers starting in the blood cells of the liver are called angiosarcomas and hemangiosarcomas
- Cancer originating in the bile duct of the liver are called cholangiocarcinomas
- Tumours called hepatoblastomas occurs majorly in infants and children.
The median age of liver cancer in Asia and Africa is 40-50 years.
CAUSE OF LIVER CANCER
Liver cirrhosis is related as the primary reason for liver cancer, as after the liver is affected by cirrhosis, the tissue of the liver is lowly modified at the expense of normal liver cells which consists more of fibrous and scar tissue, hence increasing the probability of tumour growth.
The risk factors involved in liver cancer are :
- Chronic infection with the hepatitis-B virus(HBV) or hepatitis-C virus (HCV): chronic infection when the virus remains in the blood for more than 6 months, causing the decline in the functioning of the liver cells. It affects 50% of the world population for cancer of the liver.
Hepatitis B infection causes liver cancer immediately without cirrhosis, increasing the risk up to 100 fold, while HCV increases the risk up to 17 fold.
- Long-term alcohol abuse: leading cause of liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. Alcohol intake when suffering from hepatitis increases even more.
- Inherited liver conditions: conditions like haemochromatosis which is a higher absorption of iron from food, deposits in every organ or alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency a protein depositing in every part abnormally, increases the risk of liver cirrhosis and cancer.
- Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, affect the liver like cirrhosis
- Medical conditions like autoimmune hepatitis, intrahepatic biliary inflammations and Wilsons disease are the serious factors affecting liver leading to cancer,
- Gender: live cancer is 4-8 times common in men than women
- Toxic agents exposure: anabolic steroids, increases the risk of hepatocellular adenoma. Intake of aflatoxin-contaminated food, causes DNA mutations in liver DNA cells, leading to cancer cells.
DIAGNOSIS OF LIVER CANCER
- Ultrasound tests to detect nodules, visible on imaging, determine the type of a tumour based on size.
- Blood test: for alfa-fetoprotein detection, higher levels indicate last stage liver disease.
- Biopsy: to determine the type of benign or cancerous liver cells.
SYMPTOMS OF LIVER CANCER
- Sudden weight loss
- Loss of appetite after small meal
- Enlarger liver felt as a mass under the ribs on right side
- Enlarged spleen, mass felt on the left side under ribs
- Yellowing of skin and eyes-jaundice
- Swelling and fluid buildup in the abdomen
- Pain in the abdomen, near the right shoulder blade
TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR LIVER CANCER
- Resection of a tumour by surgery
- Liver transplantation
- Local ablation methods
About chronic renal failure:
Kidney disease is a silent killer with no prominent signs of warning. In this disease the nephrons are severely affected, altering the normal functioning of the kidney. It affects the kidney functions like regulating of fluid and electrolyte balance, controlling blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin system, governing blood count through erythropoietin synthesis, directing parathyroid and skeletal function through phosphate elimination and activation of vitamin D.
The primary signs of renal failure are:
- High blood pressure
- Changes in the amount of urine passed and frequency of urination
- Alteration in the urine composition
- Presence of blood and pus cells in the urine
- Swelling of ankles and legs
- Loss of appetite and insomnia
- Shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting and severe itching
- Bad breath and metallic taste in the mouth
Chronic kidney damage is When the GFR rate is less than 60ml/min/1.73ml2 for more than 3 months or any other damage evidence for more than 3 months, calls for chronic kidney damage.
Kidney damage is of following types:
- Pathological abnormalities
- Structural abnormalities.
Diagnosis of chronic renal disease:
- Tests for presence of albumin and blood in urine
- To check level of glomerular filtration rate and concentration of other waste products in the urine
- Blood pressure tests, as kidney disease results in development of higher blood pressure
- Ultrasound and CT scan to check any morphological abnormalities in the kidney and urinary tract, to locate tumours or kidney stones.
Results of the above tests determine :
- Glomerular filtration rate
- Urea composition
Stages of chronic renal failure:
The rate of nephron duration differs for every individual ranging from several months to years. This progression of renal failure occurs in primarily 4 stages: diminishes renal reserve, renal insufficiency, renal failure and end-stage kidney disease.
- Stage 1: normal GRR greater than or equal to 90 ml/min/1.73mI3
- Stage 2: slightly decreased GFR 60-89 ml/min/1.73mI3
- Stage 3a: mild-moderate decrease in GFR between 45-59 ml/min/1.73mI3
- Stage 3b: moderate-severe decrease in GFR between 30-44 ml/min/1.73mI3
- Stage 4: severe decrease in GFR between 15-29 ml/min/1.73mI3
- Stage 5: kidney failure as GFR decreases to less than 15 ml/min/1.73mI3 or dialysis is started.
Patients at risk of chronic renal failure:
- High blood pressure
- Chronic Diabetes
- History of heart problems like heart attack, failure or stroke
- Genetic history of renal failure
- Obese patients (BMI>30)
- Chain smokers
- Previous episode of acute kidney injury
- Blockade of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or an angiotensin receptor blocker is the primary treatment to prevent progression of the disease
- Blood pressure control (<140/90), reduces the renal disease progression and cardiology morbidity and mortality
- Optimal management of comorbid diabetes and cardiovascular diseases
- Monitoring of other related complications like anaemia, electrolyte abnormalities, irregular fluid balance, mineral bone disease and malnutrition
- Dialyses like haemodialysis and periodontal dialysis or final kidney transplantation
Before jumping on to the disorders faced by the thyroid gland, let’s get to know the gland first! The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped gland located in the front of neck below the Adam’s apple, wrapped around the trachea (windpipe). And this is a very important gland as it produces thyroid hormones, which regulate metabolic rate, are important in regulating body energy, body temperature, the body’s use of other hormones and vitamins, and the growth. It uses iodine to produce vital hormones. Thyroxine, also known as T4, is the primary hormone produced by the gland. After delivery via the bloodstream to the body’s tissues, a small portion of the T4 released from the gland is converted to triiodothyronine (T3), which is the most active hormone.
Thyroid disorders can range from a small, harmless goitre (enlarged gland) that needs no treatment to the life-threatening cancer. The most common thyroid problems, however, involve abnormal production of thyroid hormones. Both situations are bad, if too much thyroid hormone results in a condition known as hyperthyroidism then insufficient hormone production leads to hypothyroidism.
The common thyroid diseases are:
Hypothyroidism: Hypothyroidism is caused by the thyroid gland producing an insufficient amount of thyroid hormone. It can develop from problems within the thyroid gland, pituitary gland, or hypothalamus. And the most common characteristic is weight gain.
Hyperthyroidism: Whereas when the thyroid gland produces more than sufficient amount of thyroid hormone. It is characterised by an increased metabolism with the common symptom of weight loss. It can be caused by excessive iodine consumption, Graves’ disease, or toxic multinodular goiter.
Goiter: Simply described, goiter is the enlargement of the thyroid gland, regardless of cause. A goiter is not a specific disease per se and may be associated with hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, or normal thyroid function.
Thyroid nodules: Nodules are lumps or abnormal masses within the thyroid that can be caused by benign cysts, benign tumours, or less commonly, cancer. Nodules may be single or multiple and can vary in size. If nodules are excessively large, they may then cause symptoms related to compression of nearby structures.
Thyroid cancer: This is a common disease in elder women than men or younger people. There are different kinds of thyroid cancer, depending upon the specific cell type within the thyroid that has become cancerous. Most cases of thyroid cancer that have a good prognosis and high survival rates, especially when diagnosed in its early stages.
Sciatica is actually the largest nerve which begins from nerve roots in the spinal cord in the lower back extending through the buttock area sending the nerve endings branches and extend down the lower limb to the ankle and foot. And as the name suggests sciatica pain is related to the nerve. However, it is not a medical diagnosis in itself but a symptom of an underlying medical condition. The pain is felt rising from the lower back to behind the thigh, radiating down below the knee and largely on one side.
The pain is tingling or numbness that is produced by an irritation of the nerve roots leading to the sciatic nerve. The pain is actually severe and more often it is resolved with non-operative treatments in few weeks. But people who have severe sciatica that’s associated with significant leg weakness or bowel or bladder changes may go for a surgery.
The possible causes for sciatica are:
The most common cause of sciatica is a bulging or lumbar herniated disc, which occurs when the soft inner material of the disc leaks out and irritates the root. But sciatica also can be a symptom of other conditions affecting the spine, like narrowing of the spinal canal, bone spurs that is caused by arthritis, or nerve root compression caused by injury. And in rare cases, it can also be caused by conditions that do not involve the spine, such as tumours or pregnancy.
The common symptoms to look out for:
The most common symptom that is associated with sciatica pain is the extreme pain that radiates from your lower spine to the buttock and down the back of the leg. It might also accompany a feeling of discomfort almost anywhere along the nerve’s passage, but it more often than not follow a path from the low back to the buttock and the back of the thigh and calf.
It usually affects only one side of the lower body and often extends from the lower back all the way through the back of the thigh and down through the leg. Although some symptoms are common for sciatica but the pain and symptoms depend and change as per the nerve which is affected and may go to the foot or toes. Also, for some people, the pain can be severe and debilitating while for others, the sciatica pain cab be infrequent and irritating. But it has the potential to get worse.
The pain can also vary widely, from a mild ache to a sharp, burning sensation or excruciating pain. Sometimes it can feel like a jolt or electric shock. It can be worse when one coughs or sneezes and can be aggravated by prolonged sitting. Some people also have numbness, tingling or muscle weakness in the affected leg or foot. One might have pain in one part of the leg and numbness in another part.
How to treat it:
The most usual and common treatment of the pain is bed rest and avoidance of certain lifestyle habits, like prolonged sitting! A heating pad helps as well. Additional treatment for sciatica depends on what is causing the nerve irritation. If the symptoms do not improve, physiotherapy may be helpful, in some cases injections of medicines such as steroids, or stronger medicines such as muscles relaxants, or even surgery for severe cases.
In simple words, pancreatitis is the inflammation of the pancreas. The pancreas is the organ behind the stomach which produces digestive enzymes. In pancreatitis, the pancreas is inflamed. The damage occurs when the digestive enzymes are activated before they are released into the small intestine which generally does not become active until they reach the small intestine. They then start attacking the pancreas and damage the tissues.
1. ACUTE PANCREATITIS
The more common and less dangerous type of pancreatitis is acute pancreatitis. It is often caused very sudden and usually resolves within a few days of treatment. However, it can be life-threatening too with severe complications. Therefore, it may range from a slight discomfort to a severe, life-threatening illness. Gallstones are the most common cause of acute pancreatitis. They cause inflammation in the process as they pass through the common bile duct. Other causes include abdominal trauma, medications, infections, tumours, and alcohol.
The symptoms of acute pancreatitis include:
- Swollen and tender abdomen
- Nausea and vomiting
- Rapid pulse
- Upper abdominal pain
- Loss of appetite due to abdominal pain
2. CHRONIC PANCREATITIS
Chronic pancreatitis is the long-lasting repeated inflammation of the pancreas. And often happens after acute pancreatitis. Heavy alcohol is another major cause. Scar tissue develops from long-term inflammation. Extensive scar tissue may cause your pancreas to stop making the normal amount of digestive enzymes which in turn troubles digesting fats. Autoimmune and genetic diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, can also cause chronic pancreatitis in some patients.
Most people with it experience upper abdominal pain, although some people have no pain at all. Other symptoms of chronic pancreatitis include:
- Weight loss
- Oily stools
People with chronic pancreatitis often lose weight, even when their appetite and eating habits are normal. The weight loss occurs because the body does not secrete enough pancreatic enzymes to digest food, so nutrients are not absorbed normally. Poor digestion leads to malnutrition due to excretion of fat in the stool.
Treatment of Pancreatitis
People with acute pancreatitis are typically treated with IV fluids and pain medicines in the hospital. In some patients, pancreatitis can be severe and they may need to be admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). Some cases of severe pancreatitis can result in the death of pancreatic tissue. In these cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the dead or damaged tissue if an infection develops. People with chronic pancreatitis are strongly advised not to smoke or consume alcoholic beverages, even if the pancreatitis is mild or in the early stages.
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