Hormones are the chemical substances that circulate throughout your body. They are produced and secreted by the glands which play a very vital role in our body functions and daily activities. Different types of hormones affect different glands. Sex hormones form an important and a critical part of our body functions that is generally responsible for regulating the skeletal growths in both the males as well as the females. These hormones affect the internal process of skeletal growth when there is an increase or decrease in the skeletal mass during those periods.
The sex hormones tend to interact with the cytosolic and the specific nuclear receptors such that it can produce masses of genomic effects in an innumerable amount of different vascular cells as present inside the body along with the added non-genomic vascular effects while acting with the specific plasmalemmal receptors.
Our human body comprises of innumerable assortments of different types and forms of hormones each of which performs different functions, few of which may even be interlinked. Growth hormone and sex hormones are few of the examples of those hormone assortments that functions inside our body and regulates our body functions. Hormones are responsible for transferring the messages in between the organs and the cells.
Hormones are secreted in our endocrine systems by the glands that are present inside the endocrine system. This secretion helps in keeping the hormone levels normal and supports in maintaining our body balance. The body thus keeps its balance and functions normally and effectively.
Ageing, the progressive change, and the process of getting older are also associated with hormones. It is affected by the loss of these sex hormones in the human body, be it male or female. Therefore, if one wishes to restore their feelings of well-being, happiness, comfort, longevity, sexual desires and ambitions, sex drive, pleasures, muscle or bone losses, lost energy levels, or any other effects that are associated with aging, then, one needs to replace their male / female hormones that have been lost during the process of aging.
Certainly, there exists several approaches and procedures that may be done to restore these hormones and look more youthful. Few of such hormone supplements include creams, patches and pellets. These approaches would at times help you in ageing slowly and lead an improved satisfied life during your old age.
Sex Hormones: Synthesis
- Synthesis of the sex hormones is controlled by the production of a hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).
- During the process of general circulations, GnRH tends to encourage the production of luteinizing hormone (LH) and the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in the pituitary gland.
- LH further binds itself to the target cells which may again lead to an increase in the extraction of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) which promotes cholesterol transfers and initiates steroidogenesis.
- Androgens, DHEA and androstenedione are released in the adrenal cortex.
- Testosterone is released in the Leydig cells, lying adjacent to the male testes.
- The production of pregnenolone is initiated in the Leydig cells of the luteinizing hormone.
- The synthesis of oestrogen in females helps in controlling the growth and development of sexual characteristics in females.
- The synthesis of glandular oestrogen takes place in the ovarian cells and the corpus luteum.
- The luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates the granulosa cells to release pregnenolone.
- Pregnenolone then diffuses from these granulosa cells and mediate the process of pregnenolone hormone conversion to androstenedione through DHEA.
- The process of extra-glandular synthesis facilitates the aromatization of androgens to oestrone.
- The fat cells convert the androgen to oestrone and thereby increases the serum oestrogens.
- The bones convert testosterone to form local oestrogen and thereby supports the development of epiphyses.
- Even though oestrogens are usually responsible for balancing the sexual characteristics in females, however, they are also synthesized at some levels in males.
- Progestin synthesis also exists. The inventories of hormone synthesis alter menstrual cycles during its production.
Hormones tend to control the functions of all the organs, and therefore it becomes extremely important to keep our hormonal levels balanced. Hormone imbalances can have several adverse effects on our total body processes. It affects the way our body stores its energy. It controls the levels of fluids, salt and sugar/glucose in our body. Sex hormones influences and affects the health of both men and women and therefore there always exists a need to keep a track your hormone levels and perform regular assessments and routine examinations to keep a balance of its levels last longer. Even a very small variation in the hormonal levels can take you to adverse situations.
A hormone is a chemical substance which controls and regulates the activity of our organs and cells. There are many hormones which are secreted by particular glands. Hormones control most of our desires, moods and bodily function. When these hormones stop functioning properly, it results in Hormonal imbalance. Imbalances occur when the proper nutrients are Read More
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The doctor might be suspecting TB of uterus as the Montox test is positive. Biopsy is an effective test to find any abnormality in the tissue. You may take the test as suggested by your doctor
Answer for Having regular Sex will increases the Estrogen Hormone, And causes the FAT deposition on Breast, Hips and Thighs of the Womens?.
Having regular orgasm might elevate the hormones like oestrogen and Testosterone slightly, but the rise would not be sufficient enough to cause any significant weight gain or fat deposition.
Having regular Sex will increases the Estrogen Hormone, And causes the FAT deposition on Breast, Hips and Thighs of the Womens?.
Having regular Sex will increases the Estrogen Hormone, And causes the FAT deposition on Breast, Hips and Thighs of the Womens?.
Hello doctr I hv pcod my height is 5 ft nd my weight is 65 i hv done with my all test all are normal my husband’s test is also normal except my montox test which is positive of 10mm My dctor sugest me to go for biopsy test of uterus which was very costly nd painfull too so i dropped that i idea becoz she didnt wait for too long .. it was jus a cycle by follicular monitoring which was failed .. so I thought i should take advice of some other dctr too aftr that my second dctr advice me to not to
Hormone Therapy To Treat Cancer
We all are creations of God. God has blessed each one of us with unique qualities & features. Out of all the creations of God, A hormone therapy is a more basic term which refers to the administration of estrogen alone or the combination of estrogen & progestin therapy. Women is considered to be the most beautiful creation for the very fact that only a women have the quality to give birth to another being. Blessed with such a unique quality, fortunate are those who have the ability to give birth naturally. The process of giving birth to an offspring is influenced by many factors such as the health of the women, hormones, etc. There comes a stage in every woman’s life after which she loses the ability to bear children.
After an average age of 45 to 50, a woman’s menstruation cycle stops and she also loses the ability to bear children. During the menopause period, the body produces less of female hormones such as estrogen & progesterone. This reduction in the hormone levels will gradually cause the menstrual cycle to stop thereby lowering the chances of getting pregnant.
The sudden hormonal changes can result in various other symptoms that affect the health of the individual. It might cause troublesome symptoms such as the sudden sensation of warmth which may be associated with flushing or abnormal sweating, mood swings, vaginal dryness and sleep disturbances.
After the first 5 years of menopause, one might encounter progressive bone loss due to decreased levels of estrogen & progesterone hormones. Bone loss is very common among men & women as they age. This could be balanced by intake of vitamin D supplements. But, the post-menopause period puts an extra strain on bones in addition to usual age-related bone problems.
What do you mean by estrogen & hormone therapy?
An estrogen therapy alone may cause uterine cancer therefore to eliminate the increased risk of cancer a progestin is administered along with estrogen. Thus, estrogen or progestin therapy also known as EPT is a combination of estrogen & progestin therapy which is given to a woman having a uterus. The method of prescribing these hormones is also called as combination hormone therapy.
A hormone therapy is a more basic term which refers to the administration of estrogen alone or the combination of estrogen & progestin therapy. The hormone therapy uses a number of hormones to treat the symptoms of menopause. Most of the times, estrogen or progestin are used. Very rarely, testosterone is also added to treat menopause-related symptoms.
The symptoms of menopause include:
- Mood swings
- Less interest in sex
- Sleep disturbances
- Dryness in the female genital areas
- Abnormal body sweats at night
- Anxiety & emotional imbalance
While hormone therapy is used to treat a number of menopause symptoms it also has some risks associated with it. Those include:
- Blood clots in the arteries
- Chances of breast cancer
- Risks of heart diseases &
The hormone therapy comes in different forms. One will have to try different forms to find out the one that suits the best for you! The various forms of hormone therapy are as follows:
The Estrogen comes in the following forms:
- ¨ Skin gel
- ¨ Vaginal rings
- ¨ Vaginal creams or tablets that help overcome dryness or pain during the intercourse
- ¨ Tablets or pills are taken by mouth
- ¨ Skin patches applied to belly & thighs
Those women who have a uterus will have to take progestin pills along with estrogen to lower the risk of endometrial cancer. Women who have had their uterus removed no longer had to worry about uterine cancer and for this reason, only estrogen hormones will do for them.
The various forms of progestin or progesterone are as follows:
- Vaginal creams or tablets
- Skin patches
- Vaginal suppositories &
The type of hormone therapy that doctor implements on you will depend on the kind of symptoms you are suffering from. For instance, skin patches or pills can treat abnormal sweating at nights, on the other hand, vaginal creams, rings or tablets will help overcome vaginal dryness.
How do you take these hormones?
Unlike other tablets, you can’t consume these hormone pills in a manner that you wish to. Your healthcare professional will guide you with this. While taking both estrogen & progestin you will have to follow one of the following schedules.
- Cyclic hormone therapy: this is recommended at the initial stages of menopause. One may use the estrogen in the form of pills or skin patches for about 25 days. The progestin pills could be added between 10 to 14 days. You use a combination of both estrogen & progestin for a span of 2 days and then for about 3 days, you should not take hormones at all. Those who undergo cyclic hormone therapy might encounter monthly bleeding.
- Combined hormone therapy: this kind is preferred when you are asked to consume both estrogen & progestin together every day. Those who undergo combined hormone therapy will also encounter unusual bleeding during the initial stages of menopause. Some may have unusual bleeding when they switch to hormone therapy. Adopting this method will enable them to stop bleeding within a year or so.
If you are at high risk of osteoporosis or if you have severe symptoms of menopause then the doctor might prescribe you other medicines too! For example, the doctor might prescribe you a male hormone, testosterone, to improve your sex drive.
Possible side effects or risk factors associated with hormone therapy:
Most women undergoing hormone therapy would experience side effects in a due course of time. The side effects may be minor or major side effects. Some of the common side effects include nausea, headaches, breast pain, irregular bleeding, & mood swings. It is difficult to differentiate which symptom is due to estrogen component & which is due to progestin.
Some of the more serious health concerns for women undergoing hormone therapy are discussed below:
- HT might increase the risk of deep vein thrombosis (vein clots) & pulmonary embolus (blood clots in lungs). Healthy women need not worry about these conditions.
- Uterine cancer: women who have a uterus and use estrogen alone are at increased risk of uterine cancer. These days, doctors prefer a combination of estrogen & progestin to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer.
- Breast cancer: Recent studies showed that hormone therapy could also increase the risk of breast cancer however, the risk is very small. The risk of breast cancer increases with the duration of use and causes more risk with 5 or more years of use.
- Heart diseases: Hormone therapy lowers the bad cholesterol & increases the good cholesterol in women. However, it increases the risk of heart diseases in women. Especially in women, who have previous heart diseases have more risk of heart attacks.
- Abnormal vaginal bleeding: during the postmenopausal period, women might encounter abnormal vaginal bleeding. What is called as “abnormal” depends on the type of hormone therapy? With continuous therapy, the bleeding might last for 6 months to a year. If the bleeding lasts more than a year then it is called as abnormal bleeding.
- Hormone therapy also slightly increases the risk of stroke, according to a study.
Due to these risk factors such as breast cancer, uterine cancer, stroke & heart diseases most women who do not have major menopause symptoms would wish to avoid hormone therapy.
How is hormone therapy prescribed?
Doctors usually prescribe combinational hormone therapy. Long-term use of estrogen alone increases the risk of uterine cancer. The addition of progesterone counteracts the risk. Estrogen is available in the forms of pills, vaginal rings, vaginal tablets, or vaginal creams. Estrogen pills are also good for vaginal dryness which could be used along with tablets or creams.
Oral therapy: some women prefer to choose daily continuous therapy which involves small doses of estrogen & progestin together. They consume the small doses of hormones each day. For the first time users, it might cause unexpected or irregular bleeding.
Transdermal therapy (patches & spray mists): hormone therapy also uses skin patches for treatment. These patches need to be worn on daily basis and need to be changed once in 2 weeks. These patches are as effective as oral therapy for controlling hot flashes. Spray mists are available as transdermal sprays which can be used once in a day.
Who should & should not take hormone therapy?
- Women with high blood pressure and controlled by medication can undergo HT as it does not elevate blood pressure.
- Those who have a family history of breast cancer or uterine cancer will have a greater risk if not undergone HT.
- HT may be used in women with migraines or liver disease. But, certain types of HT cannot be used in women as it might aggravate these conditions.
- Women who have been already treated for coronary artery disease should not undergo HT.
Some facts about HT
- HT refers to either estrogen or a combination of estrogen & progestin.
- The term Hormone therapy or HT is used to replace the outdated term Hormone replacement therapy or HRT
- The use of estrogen without progestin increases the risk of uterine cancer.
- There are other safe & effective non-hormonal methods for treating women’s concerns regarding osteoporosis.
Medical checkups available for women on HT:
All women undergoing HT should have a medical checkup every year. The doctor will perform a mammogram test to get the x-ray images of the breast. This is used to check for the masses in the breast which might be cancerous cells. The women should also discuss the bleeding pattern with her physician to be sure if that is the expected pattern for her type of HT.
If a woman wants to do against the HT then there are many other ways to deal with the symptoms of menopause. Personal lubrication products such as water-soluble jelly may be applied to the vagina to avoid dryness.
The following factors are responsible for your current complication:
- Very high intake of protein
- Sudden rigorous exercises
- Hormonal imbalance caused due to the above two
- Transexamic acid is just an immediate relief. It cant cure the underlying factors.
- PCOS (Suspected)
- Immediately stop the high protein diet and get back to regular diet
- Stop all exercises temporarily
- Get a lower abdomen ultrasound and complete hormone profiling to rule out PCOS
Menstruation or period is the condition in women in which blood and tissue from the uterus come out of the vagina. Menstruation cycle usually happens every month in girls and women. The menstrual cycle is controlled by hormones like estrogen and progesterone.
See: Why Do you Ovulate?
According to a study, more than 800 million women who come under the ages of 15 and 49 are menstruating. But still, menstruation remains inside the female closet, in silence, secrecy, embarrassment and shame. Many cultures teach girl and women that they should not talk about their cycles openly and should not complain and learn to bear all the pain and discomfort in utter silence and learn to eventually cope up with this thing.
Facts about Menstruation cycle in Women’s
In 2012, WSSCC designed and successfully conducted a Menstrual Hygiene Lab as a part of their campaign which covered five Indian states and more than 2000 Km over 51 days. Reports say that twelve thousand girls and women actively took part out of which only 748 completed surveys. The results showed that more than 70% of the girls had completely no idea what was happening to them during menstruation cycle. Some even thought that they were injured, or had some kind of disease or cancer. They even felt uncomfortable which talking to their mothers about this and got scared of menstruation. Despite the fact that women and girls make up nearly half of the world’s population- the needs of managing menstruation cycle are ignored largely. Managing and making girls aware of menstruation with safety and dignity is a human right.
The negligence of menstruation violates the Convention on the Rights of Child, CRC. This is turn even violates several human rights which includes the right to non-discrimination, privacy.
What Changes should Society have to make difference?
People should change the way of looking at menstruation and instead of making it a taboo, it needs to be managed hygienically and safely by the women and girls undergoing menstruation cycles in order to prevent any kind of health risks and infection. Hygienic and convenient materials are needed for absorbing menstrual flows. There are also various challenges like privacy, water, soap and other needs of menstruation. However, breaking the taboo still remains the biggest challenge. It can only be breakable with proper knowledge and the ability of women and girls to talk openly about menstruation cycle and have no fear and shame in themselves. Also, boys and men must be informed and make them aware of the condition so that they can support and empower the females around them.
The women and girls should be prepared in such a way that the onset of the first period should become something that young girls anticipate with full preparation and confidence instead of ignorance , fear and shame which is currently the case around the world.
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Menstruation or period is the condition in women in which blood and tissue from the uterus come out of the vagina. Menstruation cycle usually happens every month in girls and women. The menstrual cycle is controlled by hormones like estrogen and progesterone. See: Why Do you Ovulate? According to a study, more than 800 million women Read More
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In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
Fertility Treatment IUI IVF Donor Egg IVF LGBT Family Building Surrogacy Embryo Freezing Male Infertility Cancer and Fertility Preservation Personal Egg Banking
How Does the In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) Process Work?
For pregnancy to occur naturally, an egg must be released from the ovary and united with a sperm. Fertilization normally occurs within a fallopian tube, which connects the uterus to an ovary. To understand IVF, it is helpful to understand the normal 28-day menstrual cycle.
With IVF, however, the union occurs in a laboratory after the eggs and sperm have been collected. Simply put, an IVF cycle is an exaggeration of the first half of your regular menstrual cycle, the follicular phase. The same things that occur during a normal menstrual cycle occur in an IVF cycle, and in the same order. However, instead of one follicle producing one egg, the goal is to stimulate multiple follicles in both ovaries, thereby producing multiple eggs.
The big difference between an IVF cycle and a regular menstrual cycle is that ovulation does not take place in an IVF cycle. Instead, the eggs are retrieved at the point of maturation and are fertilized in the IVF lab. Embryos are then transferred to the uterus to initiate a pregnancy. Once the embryos are transferred back into the uterus, there is nothing distinguishable between embryos fertilized in the body or in an IVF laboratory.
Below are the five major steps of the IVF process in more detail:
Monitor the development of ripening egg(s) in the ovaries. Fertility medications are prescribed to control the timing of egg ripening and to increase the chance of collecting multiple eggs. To monitor egg development, GIVF utilizes ultrasound examinations of the ovaries (a painless method of imaging the enlarging follicles containing the eggs) and the measurement of serial blood hormone levels. An injection of the hormone HCG is then precisely timed to cause final ripening of the eggs.
Collect eggs. Retrieval of the eggs is performed transvaginally using a hollow needle guided by the ultrasound image, in a completely comfortable procedure under sedation and local anaesthesia.
Obtain sperm. The eggs aspirated from the ovarian follicles are immediately identified by embryologists and placed with the partner’s or donor’s sperm, which will have been carefully processed. If the sperm is considered less likely than usual to achieve fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) into each egg is performed using special micromanipulation equipment.
Place eggs and sperm together in the laboratory, and provide correct conditions for fertilization and early embryo growth. The sperm and eggs are placed into incubators and examined carefully at intervals to ensure that fertilization and cell division have taken place, after which the fertilized eggs are then known as embryos.
Transfer embryos into the uterus. Two to five days after egg retrieval, embryos are ready to be placed in the woman’s uterus. Transfer of embryos at about 5 days post-retrieval is often referred to as blastocyst transfer. A speculum is inserted into the entrance of the uterus and the embryos, suspended in a tiny drop of fluid, are very gently introduced through a catheter into the womb, often under ultrasound guidance. The embryo transfer is followed by a brief period of rest. Subsequent blood tests and ultrasound examinations are used to determine if pregnancy has been successfully established.
IVF Package In India Details
- Rates for basic IVF treatment: For one IVF session, the average cost of treatment in India is approximately 4000 US Dollars. This is not fixed, as it is possible that the rate can go up as high as 8000 US Dollars for one cycle of the treatment.
- Rates for Any Advanced Treatments: If a patient requires advanced technological assistance in IVF, the cost can go much higher. For instance, an ICSI treatment will require an additional 1,500 US Dollars to 4000 US Dollars. A FET (Frozen Embryo Transfer) procedure will cost patients about 1000 US Dollars, apart from the IVF cost in India. Infertility specialists in IVF clinics in India have the ability and technology to provide satisfactory solutions for infertility. With so many reputed centres in different cities across the country, patients can increase their chances of conceiving. By this, they can realize their dream of becoming happy parents of a beautiful and healthy baby!
Click for more info : In Vitro Fertilization Treatment in India
Below are the five major steps of the IVF process in more detail:
- Monitor the development of ripening egg(s) in the ovaries. Fertility medications are prescribed to control the timing of egg ripening and to increase the chance of collecting multiple eggs. To monitor egg development, GIVF utilizes ultrasound examinations of the ovaries (a painless method of imaging the enlarging follicles containing the eggs) and the measurement of serial blood hormone levels. An injection of the hormone HCG is then precisely timed to cause final ripening of the eggs.
- Collect eggs. Retrieval of the eggs is performed transvaginally using a hollow needle guided by the ultrasound image, in a completely comfortable procedure under sedation and local anaesthesia.
- Obtain sperm. The eggs aspirated from the ovarian follicles are immediately identified by embryologists and placed with the partner’s or donor’s sperm, which will have been carefully processed. If the sperm is considered less likely than usual to achieve fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) into each egg is performed using special micromanipulation equipment.
- Place eggs and sperm together in the laboratory, and provide correct conditions for fertilization and early embryo growth. The sperm and eggs are placed into incubators and examined carefully at intervals to ensure that fertilization and cell division have taken place, after which the fertilized eggs are then known as embryos.
- Transfer embryos into the uterus. Two to five days after egg retrieval, embryos are ready to be placed in the woman’s uterus. Transfer of embryos at about 5 days post-retrieval is often referred to as blastocyst transfer. A speculum is inserted into the entrance of the uterus and the embryos, suspended in a tiny drop of fluid, are very gently introduced through a catheter into the womb, often under ultrasound guidance. The embryo transfer is followed by a brief period of rest. Subsequent blood tests and ultrasound examinations are used to determine if pregnancy has been successfully established.
You may also like: How would you know you’re ovulating?
Most often when a woman is not able to conceive or is not getting pregnant, then it is predicted that the women are infertile. However, men play an equally important role in the process of fertilization. Around 1 in every 5 infertile couple, the reason is the fertility issue of men. Low sperm count in men can be one of the major reasons for this infertility. Around 90% of the times, the reason for male infertility is the problem of low sperm count. As a couple, struggling to conceive for one’s own child is really a frustrating experience and a concern.
Facts to know:
- The condition when your sperm counts are low, i.e., less than 15 million sperm/ml are medically termed as oligospermia.
- In case sperms are found totally missing and your semen sample is tested to have no sperms at all, then that condition is medically termed as azoospermia.
- During your struggle to conceive or having a child, knowing the count of your sperms that you ejaculate during the process may be quite important.
- A total sperm count of 20 million or more is a healthy count.
- 40% or more of your total sperms moving in the forward direction indicates a healthy percentage of mortality rate.
- Shapes of sperms that consists of an oval head of around 5 to 6 micrometres long and having only one long tail are as healthy sperms.
Treatments & Preventions for the Low Sperm Count:
The treatment process depends on the cause and level of complications associated with the problem. However, few of the common treatments are listed below:
- Medications like anabolic steroids, etc. as prescribed by the doctors
- Antibiotics may be prescribed
- Hormonal treatments as per the prescribed medications or drugs
- Regularizing the sexual intercourse process
- Avoiding usage of lubricants
- Maintain a healthy weight and lifestyle
- Keep away from excessive heat
- Stay away from excessive smoking and alcohol consumptions
- Try to manage your stress levels
It is to be noted that both you and your partner must get yourselves tested for fertility even if you already show the symptoms of low sperm count. Later, in case it is detected that you have a low sperm count, still, you should not lose your hope because at times the sperm counts may also get boosted with the right intake of vitamins and other supplements. Otherwise, if the cause of low sperm count is the presence of some hormonal problem in your body, then going for a surgery or a replacement therapy can be helpful.
Apart from this, today there are various other options also available for infertile couples who are unable to increase their sperm count. They may anytime opt for an In vitro fertilization (IVF) or go for an adoption process. Whatsoever is the situation, consulting with your doctor is always the best option to pamper yourself and your partner.
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Most often when a woman is not able to conceive or is not getting pregnant, then it is predicted that the women are infertile. However, men play an equally important role in the process of fertilization. Around 1 in every 5 infertile couple, the reason is the fertility issue of men. Low sperm count in Read More
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