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2 years ago

Answer for Birth Control Pill Question

As she is regularly taking the contraceptive pills, there remain hardly any scope for pregnancy. You are unnecessarily afraid. If you still have any confusion you may talk to gynaecologist over phone call at free doctor helpline.

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1 year ago Health , healthy

What is Menstruation?

Menstruation is the monthly bleeding which a woman enquires every month after she attains her puberty. It is a biological phenomenon which happens when your body sheds the inner lining of the uterus. In the process, the body also flushes out the impure blood from the uterus through the small opening in the cervix and finally it is expelled out through the vagina. When menstruation happens regularly it is called menstrual cycle. For most women, the menstrual cycle lasts for about 3 to 5 days. Getting your periods regularly is an indication that the important parts in your body are functioning properly. The menstrual cycle provides hormone which keeps your body healthy and also it prepares yourself every month for pregnancy. The cycle is counted from the first day of the period to the first day of the next period. For adults, it ranges from 21 days to 35 days & among young teens it may vary from 21 to 45 days. On an average, the periods occur in about 28 days. Basically, the menstrual cycle is controlled by the rise & fall of the hormone levels.

Ask a Doctor  Consult a Doctor

Puberty & periods:

Girls go through puberty usually between the age of 8 to 13. This is the time when their body & mind undergo a lot of changes. In about 2 years she begins to develop breasts and before 6 months she gets her first period, she may notice a clear vaginal discharge. It is not that a girt develops ovaries, fallopian tubes & uterus during her teens. Every girl baby is born with all of these. The ovaries contain 1000 of eggs also called as ova. The fallopian tubes are thin and stretch from the ovaries to the uterus. The muscles in the uterus are strong enough to carry the fetus and push the baby out of the uterus during the labor.

Every month an egg leaves the ovaries, travel down the fallopian tube and reaches the uterus. The day before ovulation, the estrogen hormone prepares the uterus to accept the egg by building up it’s lining with extra tissues & blood. This makes the uterus thick and cushioned. If the egg is fertilized by a sperm then it gets attached to the uterus. When the egg isn’t fertilized then it paves the way for the menstrual cycle. The uterus sheds the extra tissue along with the blood. This cycle continues to happen every month until the woman reaches her menopause after which the ovaries are unable to release eggs.menstruation

Menstrual cramps:

Menstrual cramps are often dull, achy and even be intense sometimes. Menstrual cramps are due to the muscle contract in the uterus which forces the thin lining to flush out through the vaginal opening. A chemical called a prostaglandin is responsible for this action. Many girls and even woman prefer over-the-counter medicines to overcome the cramps. Instead, you can simply take a warm bath, or put a warm pad over the lower abdomen so as to lessen the pain. Regular exercising throughout the menstrual cycle can also help overcome the menstrual cramps.

Premenstrual syndrome:

A lot of girls and even women undergo mood swings during their periods. Some feel sad without any reason, while some get irritated over silly things, some get angry very quickly while others burst out crying. Some girls even crave certain foods. All these are collectively known as premenstrual syndrome (PMS). PMS is mainly due to changes in hormones. During the menstrual cycle, the female body undergoes a lot of hormonal changes. There may be rise and fall in the hormone level.  These changes can affect the way she feels both mentally & physically. She may feel bloated due to water retention or may have sore or swollen breasts or may even develop unusual headaches.

Usually, PMS goes away after the periods but comes back during the next one. The only way to handle it right is to eat healthy foods, get enough sleep & exercise regularly. The pimples and acne-flare ups during the cycles are also a result of hormone changes.

When should you consult a doctor about your periods?

It is better to seek the advice of the doctor if you notice any of the following:

  • You haven’t attained puberty by the age of 15
  • If your cycle stops for more than 90 days
  • If suddenly your periods become irregular
  • If your cycle occurs very often than every 21 days or less often than 35 days
  • If you encounter heavy bleeding
  • If you fall sick immediately after your cycle

How often should you change you change your pad?

It is advised to change your pad every 4 to 8 hours. Use the ones that have light absorbancy. One needs to change the pad before it becomes fully soaked with blood. Ignoring this might result in deadly disease such as toxin shock syndrome(TSS). It is caused by the bacteria that produce toxins. If your immune system can’t fight the toxins then it reacts to it and develops the symptoms of TSS.

Also Read: 8 Most Common Symptoms of UTI

What is a normal menstruation?

When it comes to periods, the word normal covers a lot of stuff beneath it. The following are the factors you need to check upon.

Timing: The timing of your menstrual cycle is very important. It usually lasts for 21 to 45 days in young teens & 21 to 35 days in adults. On an average, you must get your cycles every 28 days. Older women have much shorter and consistent cycles. If you are under medication such as birth control pills or IUDs then it might change your cycle pattern.

Flow: When your egg isn’t fertilized then the lining of the uterus we shed out through the vaginal opening along with the blood and tissues. This is called menstrual flow. Whether, the flow is thick, moderate or heavy it is all considered normal.

Apart from PMS, there are few other menstrual problems that one might face. Those are heavy periods, absent periods & painful periods. Let’s have look at each of them.

Heavy periods: It is also called as menorrhagia. This is when you bleed more than normal. Also, your periods may last for longer days such as 5 to 7 days. It is due to the imbalances in the hormone levels especially estrogen & progesterone. Other causes of heavy bleeding include:

Absent periods: due to various reasons, a woman may not get her periods. This condition is called amenorrhea. Due to any problem in the pituitary gland, or any defect in the female reproductive system or a delay in puberty may be some reasons for a girl/woman to not get her periods. This is called primary amenorrhea.

Other causes of amenorrhea are :

When adults do not menstruate then there may be many reasons associated with it. It includes:

  • Breastfeeding
  • Menopause
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease
  • Reproductive infection
  • Premature ovarian failure
  • Stopping birth control pills

Painful periods: your periods may not only be heavy or light, it may also be painful due to various reasons. Extremely painful periods is called dysmenorrhea. This may be linked to underlying medical problems such as fibroids, Pelvic inflammatory disease or endometriosis.

To get free consultations contact our doctors online @ www.freedoctorhelpline.com or call us at +918010555444

Self medication

Self Medication ; A Threat to Life

Rising number of medical shops and the competition among them to hike their turnover is leading to another kind of problem in India i.e. Prescription drugs/ Schedule H medicines which are meant to be sold only on the written recommendation of a registered practitioner are readily available to everyone. Schedule H drugs are those which Read More

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How Hepatitis C Affects Your Body?

Hepatitis C is a viral disease that primarily causes inflammation of the liver, but the effects can be felt throughout the body. It’s a blood borne disease, which means its spread when the blood of a person infected with the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) enters the blood stream of someone else. Hepatitis C in the Read More

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breast cancer awareness

Breast Cancer —early detection is the key

Breast cancer Awareness! We all know that “Cancer” is a devastating disease which not only causes immense suffering to the patients and their relatives but also burdens the healthcare system. Tumor that has developed from the cells of the breast is known as Breast Cancer. Cancer starts when the cells begin to multiply in a Read More

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CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE

About chronic renal failure: Kidney disease is a silent killer with no prominent signs of warning. In this disease the nephrons are severely affected, altering the normal functioning of the kidney.  It affects the kidney functions like regulating of fluid and electrolyte balance, controlling blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin system, governing blood count through erythropoietin Read More

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Sinusitis

Sinus infection is medicinally known as sinusitis, and is majorly caused when your nasal cavities wind up noticeably swollen and inflamed. Usually it is a virus infection that results in sinusitis. It frequently holds on even after other respiratory symptoms are no more. In uncommon cases, bacteria or fungus may bring about a sinus infection. Read More

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1 year ago Health , Medical

Everything You Need to Know About Migraine

A migraine is a severe, painful headache that can be preceded or accompanied by sensory warning signs such as flashes of light, blind spots, tingling in the arms and legs, nausea, vomiting, and increased sensitivity to light and sound.

The excruciating pain that migraine brings can last for hours or even days. Migraine is a common problem affecting 36 million Americans, about 12% of the population.

What are Migraine Headaches?

The exact cause of migraine headaches is unknown; it is thought to be due to abnormal brain activity causing a temporary alteration in the nerve signals, chemicals and blood flow in the brain.

Migraine headaches can be very debilitating affecting 1 in 4 households in India. They are more common in women than men, and 3% of people have chronic migraines where they experience symptoms for half the month for six months.

Ask a Doctor  consult a Doctor

What triggers Migraine Headaches?

Some people who suffer from migraines can clearly identify triggers or factors that cause the headaches, but many cannot. Potential migraine triggers include:

  • Allergies and allergic reactions
  • Bright lights, loud noises, flickering lights, smoky rooms, temperature changes, strong smells and certain odours or perfumes
  • Physical or emotional stress, tension, anxietydepression, excitement
  • Physical triggers such as tiredness, jet lag, exercise
  • Changes in sleep patterns or irregular sleep
  • Smoking or exposure to smoke
  • Skipping meals or fasting causing low blood sugar
  • Dehydration
  • Alcohol
  • Hormonal triggers such as menstrual cycle fluctuations, birth control pills, menopause
  • Tension headaches
  • Foods containing tyramine (red wine, aged cheese, smoked fish, chicken livers, figs, and some beans), monosodium glutamate (MSG), or nitrates (like bacon, hot dogs and salami)
  • Other foods such as chocolate, nuts, peanut butter, avocado, banana, citrus, onions, dairy products and fermented or pickled foods
  • Medication such as sleeping tablets, the contraceptive pill, hormone replacement therapy.

Symptoms of Migraines

Symptoms of a migraine can occur a while before a headache, immediately before a headache, during a headache and after a headache. Although not all migraines are the same, typical symptoms include:

  • Moderate to severe pain, usually confined to one side of the head during an attack, but can occur on either side of the head
  • The pain is usually a severe, throbbing, pulsing pain
  • Increasing pain during physical activity
  • Inability to perform regular activities due to pain
  • Feeling sick and physically being sick
  • Increased sensitivity to light and sound, relieved by lying quietly in a darkened room
  • Some people experience other symptoms such as sweating, temperature changes, tummy ache and diarrhoea

Migraine headaches can be severe, debilitating, and uncomfortable. Many treatment options are available, so be patient finding the one or combination that’s best for you. Keep Track of your headaches and symptoms in order to identify migraine triggers. Knowing how to prevent migraines can often be the first step to managing them.

Read: Is Headache During Sex Normal?

Liver transplant in India

The liver is the largest organ in the body weighing about 3 pounds in adults. It is located below the diaphragm on the right side of the abdomen. The liver performs many of the complex functions in the body such as ¨ Prepares proteins needed by the body ¨ Metabolizes and breaks down nutrients from Read More

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Skin care

Skin is the important body entity and its care is the variety of practice that supports skin integrity, enhances its appearance and relieve skin conditions. The various skin care practices majorly are comprised of supplementary nutrition, prevention of excessive sun exposure and suitable use of emollients. Practices that will enhance appearance also which include the Read More

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Alarming air pollution

In this world we humans have some basic amenities such as food, water and shelter. In addition to these we need some comforts to ease our lives such as vehicles, air conditioners, refrigerators and the most important aerosol deodorants (because we need to smell good). We have industries manufacturing these daily pleasures of ours and Read More

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syphilis, syphilis treatment, syphilis causes,

8 Syphilis Symptoms in Women that are up terrifying: Causes & Treatment

What is Syphilis? It is a rare sexually transmitted disease caused by bacterium Treponema pallidum. This disease is treatable by a medical professional. It is spread through sexual activity and transmitted during pregnancy or at childbirth from infected mother to her Baby. This disease is more common in men than women. In India about less Read More

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5 Quick and easy home remedy for migraine

The stressful lifestyle and improper rest has lead many on the way to headaches. Headaches have become a common problem of the modern times that stems out of a variety of causes. The worst of them being migraine! According to the World Health Organization, it is one of the most disabling conditions worldwide. It is Read More

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1 year ago

can-i-get-pregnant

Can I get pregnant if he washed his penis after ejaculation with tap water then reinserted it into me? I took 4 birth control pills `5 hours after that and another 4 pills the next 12 hours. 

2 years ago

unexplained-heart-palpitations

I keep getting heart palpitations. I\\\’m 23, female, no known heart problem. I do suffer from anxiety and have been to the ER before several times because of chest pains etc. and I\\\’ve had ECGs done where everything seemed fine. Last one was about 7 months ago. But for the past few months I\\\’ve been getting these palpitations quite frequently, and at random times. I don\\\’t drink caffeine at all and I don\\\’t smoke. They seem to appear more if I\\\’m laughing or crying or excited in some way, but not exclusively. They scare me so much I\\\’m now avoiding laughing too much, avoiding alcohol, avoiding exercise etc. The only medicine I take is birth control pills.I don\\\’t have health insurance and I\\\’m really poor lol, can\\\’t go to a doctor unless there is really a serious cause for concern.  

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2 years ago Health , Medical

Uterine fibroid

With the present lifestyle and eating habits, we are very much aware of the deadly disease called cancer. Till date, we have not found the exact cause of cancerous cells being multiplied in our body. On the other hand, there is also another type of tumor cells which are noncancerous and do not multiple within called the fibroids.

What are fibroids?

Fibroids are the most frequently seen tumors of the female reproductive system. Made of smooth muscle cells & fibrous connective tissues, fibroids are firm & compact tumor cells that develop in the uterus.

It has been found that about 30-50% of the women in the reproductive age have fibroids although, all of which are not diagnosed. So, fortunately, in about 99% of the fibroid cases, the tumors are non-cancerous. These tumors are in no way associated with cancer and do not increase the risk of uterine cancer in women.

Uterine fibroids also called as leiomyomas or myomas are non-cancerous cells that develop in the uterus often during the pregnancy periods. They are not associated with the increased risk of uterine cancer and never develop into cancer.

Fibroids are undetectable by the human eye and often range from the size of a seedling to bulky masses that can distort or enlarge the uterus. You may develop a single fibroid or multiple ones. Sometimes, the fibroids may expand the uterus so much that it will reach the rib cage.

It is most commonly developed at the time of menopause as well. Most women do not know that they have uterine fibroids as it does not cause any symptoms.

Your doctor may detect the presence of fibroids at the time of pelvic exam or prenatal ultrasound.

What are some of the noticeable symptoms?

Most women with fibroids have no symptoms at all. Some develop mild symptoms while others have severe & disruptive symptoms. The following are the most common symptoms of uterine fibroids:

  • Irregular  menstrual periods
  • Abnormal bleeding during menstrual periods
  • Pelvic pain
  • Frequent urination
  • Pain in the lower back
  • Pain during intercourse
  • A firm mass located near the pelvic region

In some cases, irregular menstrual periods, or the abnormal bleeding between periods, can lead to iron-deficiency and result in anemia, which then requires treatment. The treatment for fibroids depends on the location, size & number of fibroids. However, these symptoms may differ from individual to another individual. A fibroid can cause acute pain when it gets less amount of blood supply and begins to die.

Fibroids are classified depending on their location.

Intramural fibroids develop in the uterine wall. Those fibroids that develop in the uterine cavity are called submucosal fibroids. The fibroids that project outside the uterus are called subserosal fibroids.

What causes fibroids in women?

Doctors do not know the exact reason of uterine fibroids. Researches & studies have found out the following to be the main causes of uterine fibroids. The causes include:

  • HORMONES: the 2 main hormones, estrogen & progesterone that play a vital role in the development of uterine lining at the time of pregnancy or menstrual cycle are responsible for stimulating the growth of fibroids in the uterus. Fibroids contain a large number of these hormones than the normal muscle cells do. After the menopause, the amount of hormone secretion gradually reduces. As a result, the fibroids tend to shrink.
  • GENETIC CHANGES: many fibroids contain changes in genes which are quite different from those in the normal muscle cells.
  • OTHER GROWTH FACTORS: insulin-like growth factors that help the body to maintain tissues might affect the growth of fibroids.

The uterine fibroids develop from a stem cell in the smooth muscular tissue of the uterus. A single cell divides repeatedly forming a rubbery mass. The growth patterns of fibroids largely depend on person to person. The growth may appear slowly or rapidly. At times, it seems to remain in same size throughout.

 What are the risk factors associated with uterine fibroids?

Other than being a woman of reproductive age, there are other risk factors associated with uterine fibroids. Other factors that influence the fibroid growth include:

  • HEREDITY: if your mother or sister had one, then even you are at increased risk of developing a fibroid.
  • RACE: Black women are more likely to have fibroids than women of other racial groups. They are likely to develop one at an earlier age and may also have fibroids of larger size.

Other complications that affect the growth of uterine fibroids are:

  • Onset of menstruation at an early stage
  • Use of birth control pills
  • Obesity
  • Vitamin D deficiency
  • Diet higher in red meat & lower in green vegetables, fruits & dairy
  • Excessive alcohol consumption

Fibroids do not interfere with getting pregnant. However, fibroids might cause infertility or loss of pregnancy. Other complications that result from fibroids include placental abruption, fetal growth restriction & preterm delivery.

How are uterine fibroids diagnosed?

Uterine fibroids are found during the pelvic exam. The doctor may observe some abnormalities in the shape of your uterus thereby suggesting the presence of fibroids.

Your doctor may suggest you take up the following tests:

  • Ultrasound: Ultrasound is used to confirm the presence the fibroids. It uses sound waves to detect the presence of fibroids and also to measure its size and location. The doctor places the ultrasound device over your abdomen or places it inside your vagina to get the images of the uterus.
  • LAB TESTS: if you have abnormal menstrual bleeding, then your doctor may suggest you take up a lab test to identify the potential cause. This might include complete blood count (CBC) to see if you are anemic due to abnormal blood loss and other types of blood tests to rule out issues like thyroid problems & bleeding disorders.

If the traditional ultrasound does not provide necessary information then the doctor might suggest other advanced imaging techniques. These include:

  • MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI): this test helps to identify the size & location of fibroids, different types of tumors and also help with appropriate treatment options.
  • HYSTEROSONOGRAPHY: this technique is also called as saline infusion sonogram. It makes use of sterile saline to expand the uterine cavity. This makes it easy to get images of the endometrium & the submucosal fibroids.
  • HYSTEROSALPINGOGRAPHY: it makes use of a contrast medium or a dye to highlight the uterine cavity & the fallopian tubes so that these areas are well seen under an x-ray This helps the doctor to identify any abnormalities in the shape of the uterus. It helps not only in detecting fibroids but also to identify if the fallopian tuare open.
  • HYSTEROSCOPY: in this medical procedure doctor inserts a small device called Hysteroscope through your cervix into the uterus. He then injects saline into the uterus, which expands the uterine cavity and allows the doctor to examine the uterine walls

What are the treatment options for uterine fibroids?

The noninvasive treatment procedures include:

Some of the minimally invasive procedures include:

Minimally invasive procedures include destroying the uterine fibroids without actually removing it through surgery.

Uterine artery embolization: the arteries supplying the uterus are injected with small particles. These particles will then prevent the blood flow to the uterine fibroids, thereby stunting its growth.  In due course, it will shrink the fibroids and causes it to die. We need to be aware of the complications that might occur if the blood supply to other ovaries and organs are blocked.

Myolysis: it is a laparoscopic technique that uses radiofrequency energy, electric current & laser to destroy the fibroids. This technique also shrinks the blood vessels that feed them. Cryomyolisis is a similar procedure that freezes the fibroids.

Robotic myomectomy: in this technique, the doctor removes the fibroids without disturbing the uterus.  If the fibroids are small and few in number, you and your doctor may opt for a laparoscopic or robotic procedure, which uses small instruments inserted through small incisions in your abdomen to remove the fibroids from your uterus. Another procedure called as morcellation is a method by which the fibroids are removed by breaking them into smaller pieces.

Hysteroscopic myomectomy: if the fibroids are present inside the uterus, then this method may be opted. The surgeon removes fibroids using instruments that are inserted through your vagina and cervix into the uterus.

Options for traditional surgical procedures include:

  • Abdominal myomectomy.If you have multiple fibroids, very large fibroids or very deep fibroids, your doctor may use an open abdominal surgical procedure to remove the fibroids
  • Hysterectomy: it is a major surgical procedure that involves the removal of the uterus to put an end to the uterine fibroids. It is a proven permanent solution for uterine fibroids.

In the next section of this article let us have a deeper look at the hysterectomy procedure.

Why is hysterectomy performed?

The doctor may suggest you undergo hysterectomy for the following reasons:

  • Uncontrollable vaginal bleeding
  • Chronic pelvic pain
  • Fibroids which are tumors that grow in the uterus
  • Cancers of uterus, cervix or ovaries
  • Pelvic inflammatory diseases which are the main causes of infection in the reproductive organs
  • Uterine prolapsed which occurs when the uterus drops through the cervix and comes out of the vagina
  • Endometriosis, a disorder in the inner lining of the uterus that grows outside of the uterine cavity causing pain.

Hysterectomy is a safest and low-risk surgical procedure. However, it should not be used on all women who still wish to give birth in the future. Fortunately, many conditions that are treated with hysterectomy can also be treated by others ways. For instance, hormone therapy can be used to treat endometriosis and fibroids can also be removed by simple surgery. Hysterectomy is the only option when it comes to uterine or cervical cancer.

Types of hysterectomy:

  • Partial Hysterectomy: during this procedure, only a part of your uterus is removed. The cervix is left intact.
  • Total Hysterectomy: during this procedure, the entire uterus is removed along with the cervix. You will have to have regular pelvic examinations.
  • Hysterectomy and salpingo-Oophorectomy: during this procedure, the entire uterus along with one or both the ovaries and fallopian tube is removed. One may need hormone replacement therapy if both the ovaries are removed.

How is hysterectomy performed?

Hysterectomy can be carried out in many ways. All the methods require general or local anesthesia. A general anesthesia will put you to sleep where as a local anesthesia will numb that particular area alone but you will still be awake. Sometimes anesthesia will be combined with a sedative so that you feel sleepy and relaxed throughout the procedure.

Abdominal hysterectomy: In this procedure, the uterus is removed through a large cut in the abdomen. The incision may be vertical or horizontal. Both these types will heal quickly and leave a scar on the surface.

Vaginal hysterectomy: In this procedure, the uterus is removed through a small incision in the vagina. There are no visible cuts and no scars seen on the outer body.

Laparoscopic hysterectomy: In this procedure, the doctor uses a small instrument called laparoscope. It is a long narrow tube, which consists of a high-intensity light and high-resolution camera to capture the images. These images will be displayed on the screen. In this, 3 or 4 incisions are made in the uterus instead of one large incision. The surgeon then cut the uterus into small pieces and removes one piece at a time.

What are the risks of hysterectomy?

This is considered to be the safest procedure. Any medical procedure has its own advantages and risks associated with it. Some of the risks associated with it are:

  • Heavy bleeding
  • Infection around the incision site
  • Injury to bladder, intestines and surrounding blood vessels

Once the surgery is over you will be monitored for your heartbeat and breathing. If everything turns normal then you can be discharged. However, you will have to stay in the hospital for 3 to 5 days. Doctors will encourage you to do light exercises such as walking as it helps to prevent blood clots. If you have undergone vaginal hysterectomy, then you may experience bloody or brownish drainage from the vagina for 10 days. So using a menstrual pad is advisable.

Even after you are discharged, you should avoid doing certain activities such as pushing or pulling objects, bending, lifting heavy objects, sexual intercourse, etc

Recovery time is comparatively longer if one undergoes an abdominal hysterectomy. Complete recovery will take about 4 to 6 weeks.

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2 years ago LifeStyle

Types of Contraceptives

Contraceptives and their types:

A woman can get pregnant if a man’s sperm reaches one of her eggs.

Contraception tries to stop this happening by keeping the egg and sperm apart, or by stopping egg production, or by stopping fertilization attaching to the lining of the womb. Contraception is almost free for most people in the UK.

With 15 methods to choose from, you can find one that suits you best.

Barrier methods such as condoms are a form of contraception that helps to protect against sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy. You should use condoms to protect both your sexual health and that of your partner, no matter what the other contraception you’re using to prevent pregnancy.

What methods of contraception are available?

There are different methods of contraception:

  • long-acting reversible contraception,
  • hormonal contraception
  • barriers methods,
  • fertility awareness
  • emergency contraception
  • permanent contraception

 

There are about 15 methods of contraception. Don’t worry if the first type you used isn’t quite right. You still many ample options.

  • ¨ Caps
  • ¨ Combined pills
  • ¨ Condoms- female
  • ¨ Condoms- male
  • ¨ Contraceptive implant
  • ¨ Contraceptive injection
  • ¨ Contraceptive patch
  • ¨ Diaphragms
  • ¨ Intrauterine devices
  • ¨ Intrauterine Systems
  • ¨ Natural family planning
  • ¨ Progestogen-only pills
  • ¨ Vaginal ring
  • ¨ Female sterilization
  • ¨ Male sterilization

Over years the number of contraceptive methods has greatly increased and the methods differ by how they work. There are

  • ¨ Barrier methods- condoms or cervical cap
  • ¨ Hormone methods- pills
  • ¨ Intrauterine devices & sterilisation

Most types of contraceptives work by:

  1. a) Prevent an egg from being released every month (hormones)
  2. b) Prevent sperms from reaching the egg (barrier and some IUD methods)
  3. c) Block the reproductive function – in men or women (sterilization)
  4. d) Prevent a fertilized egg from implanting in the uterus (hormones)

What is long-acting reversible contraception?

A long-lasting reversible contraception usually last for a long time, you need to remember it every day or month.

There are two types of LARC:

  • anintrauterine device that lasts five or more years
  • animplant under the skin that lasts either three or five years.

These types of contraception last longer so are more effective at preventing pregnancy because you don’t have to worry about forgetting pills or a condom breaking or coming off.

They are “fit and forget” contraception.

 

Hormonal methods:

Hormonal methods of birth control use hormones to regulate or stop ovulation and prevent pregnancy. Ovulation is the biological process in which the ovary releases an egg, making it available for fertilization. Hormones can be introduced into the body through various methods, including pills, injections, skin patches, transdermal gels, vaginal rings, intrauterine systems, and implantable rods. Depending on the types of hormones that are used, these methods can prevent ovulation; thicken cervical mucus, which helps block sperm from reaching the egg; or thin the lining of the uterus.

  • Injectable birth control:

   This method involves the injection of a progestin, given in the arm or buttocks once every 3 months.5 This method of birth control can cause a temporary loss of bone density, particularly in adolescents. However, this bone loss is generally regained after discontinuing use of DMPA. Most patients using injectable birth control should eat a diet rich in calcium and vitamin D or take vitamin supplements while using this medication.

  • POPs progestin-only pills:

   In this, a woman takes one pill each day probably at the same time. POPs may interfere with ovulation or with sperm function.  POPs thicken cervical mucus, making it difficult for sperm to swim into the uterus or to enter the fallopian tube. POPs alter the normal cyclical changes in the uterine lining and may result in unscheduled or breakthrough bleeding. These hormones do not appear to be associated with an increased risk of blood clots.

  • Contraceptive patch:

It is a thin plastic patch which sticks to the skin and releases hormones into the bloodstream.  The patch is placed on the lower abdomen, buttocks, outer arm, or upper body. A new patch is applied once a week for 3 weeks, and no patch is used on the fourth week to enable menstruation.

  • Vaginal ring. 

     The ring is thin, flexible, and approximately 2 inches in diameter. It delivers a combination of Ethinyl estradiol and a progestin. The ring is inserted into the vagina, where it continually releases hormones for 3 weeks. The woman removes it for the fourth week and reinserts a new ring 7 days later. Risks for this method of contraception are similar to those for the combined oral contraceptive pills. A vaginal ring may not be recommended for women with certain health conditions, including high blood pressure, heart disease, or certain types of cancer.

EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTIVE PILLS:

    

ECPs are hormonal pills that are taken as a single dose or 2 doses, 12 hours apart. They are intended to use in the event of unprotected intercourse. If taken prior to ovulation, the pills can delay or inhibit ovulation for at least 5 days to allow the sperm to become inactive. They also cause thickening of cervical mucus and may interfere with sperm function. ECPs should be taken as soon as possible after semen exposure and should not be used as a regular contraceptive method. Pregnancy can occur if the pills are taken after ovulation or if the woman has unprotected sex in the same cycle.

    

In this article, we will mainly focus on the 3 main types: IUD, Vasectomy (male contraception) & tubectomy (female contraception)

 

Intrauterine devices:

An intra-uterine device (IUD) is a small T-shaped birth control device which is usually made of plastic and wrapped with copper or hormones. This device is inserted into the women’s uterus to prevent pregnancy. A plastic string is tied to the end of the IUD that hangs down the vagina through the cervix. One can check if the IUD is in place by feeling this string. This string is also used by the doctors to remove the IUD.

TYPES OD IUDs:

There are 2 types of IUDs that are usually preferred. They are:

  • ¨ Hormonal IUD
  • ¨ Copper IUD

The hormonal IUD releases a form of progestin hormone called as levonorgestrel. This type of IUD is found to be the most effective form of contraception than the copper IUDs. They can prevent pregnancy for 3 to 5 years.

The copper IUD is the most commonly used IUD. A copper wire is wound around the stem of the T-shaped device. This can prevent pregnancy for 10 years.

Insertion & working of IUDs:

The insertion of IUD into the uterus is done with help of a specialized doctor. An IUD can be inserted anytime into a women’s body provided she is not pregnant or have a pelvic infection. The insertion procedure takes only a few minutes and sometimes an anesthetic may be given in the area around the cervix.

The main function of the IUD is to prevent the fertilization of the egg by killing or damaging the sperms. The hormonal IUD prevents the fertilization of the egg by killing or damaging the sperms. It makes the mucus in the cervix thick and sticky so that the sperm can’t get through the uterus. It also weakens the uterine lining so that it becomes a poor place for the fertilized egg to implant and grow. The hormone in this IUD also reduces the menstrual cramping and bleeding.

Copper is toxic to the sperm. The copper enables the fallopian tube and uterus to produce a fluid that consists of copper ions, enzymes, white blood cells and prostaglandins that kill the sperms.

When can it be done?

Women can undergo an IUD if she fits into one of the below categories;

  • Do not have a pelvic infection at the time of insertion
  • If a woman is breastfeeding
  • If she is not prone to sexually transmitted diseases
  • If she do not want to use birth control pills
  • If she prefers a long-acting method of birth control

Advantages of IUDs:

The advantages of IUDs include:

  • ¨ It is cost-efficient
  • ¨ Less time-consuming method of contraception
  • ¨ Lowers risk of ectopic pregnancy
  • ¨ Reduces menstrual bleeding and cramps by 90%
  • ¨ It may prevent endometrial cancer
  • ¨ Do not cause weight gain

Disadvantages of IUDs:

  • The hormonal IUD may give rise to non-cancerous growth such as ovarian cysts.
  • It may cause hormonal side effects as that caused by oral contraception.
  • The side effects include breast tenderness, mood swings, headaches, and acne.

 

RISKS FACTORS:

Menstrual problems: the hormonal IUD reduces menstrual cramps and bleeding whereas the copper IUD increases menstrual cramps and bleeding. Some may also experience spotting between the periods.

Perforation: one out of 1000 women will strike in perforation. It almost occurs during insertion. The IUD should be removed if the uterus perforate.

Expulsion: about 1 out of 100 women may experience expulsion. The IUD may be expelled out of the vagina.

 

TUBECTOMY:

Tubectomy, also called as tubal ligation is solely meant for women. It is a surgical procedure of permanently preventing pregnancies. It is commonly called as, “getting your tubes tied” is a surgical sterilization technique for women. This procedure involves closing the fallopian tubes thereby stopping the eggs from traveling from the ovary to the uterus. It also prevents the sperms from entering the fallopian tube to fertilize the egg.

This surgical procedure is 99.5 % effective as birth control and works immediately. In the tubal ligation, the fallopian tubes are either cut or burned or blocked with clips. It does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases including HIV & AIDS.

Procedure:

The tubectomy can be carried out in 2 ways; one is by open surgery that is cut opening the abdomen and the other is a minimally invasive surgery using laparoscopic techniques. In this, the tubes are cut and tied or a clipped at a particular point so as to stop the motion of egg from the ovary to the uterus. This prevents the chances of getting pregnant.

Can the procedure be reversed?

As mentioned earlier this is a permanent technique but it can be reversed by undergoing major surgery. However, the results of that surgery are not at all guaranteed and reversals are more difficult and expensive. Performing tubectomy by microsurgery or laparoscopic techniques have higher chances of reversal but the chances of getting pregnant after the reversal are very minimal.

Women can enjoy sex as earlier even after tubal ligation. There are no noticeable changes in their menstrual cycle and hormone levels. The ovaries release eggs as earlier they are not pushed down the fallopian tube but are reabsorbed by the body itself.

Who should not get this procedure?

It is a complex surgery and is performed under general anesthesia. Certain people who suffer from the following should not undergo this procedure.

  • Women who already have undergone surgeries in the abdomen
  • Women who have heart and lung diseases
  • Women who are allergic to general anesthesia.

Why is it more complex than a vasectomy?

     It is definitely considered to be more complex than a vasectomy because women undergoing this surgery are prone to have more complications because it is a major abdominal surgery. In a vasectomy, the semi vesicles are cut. These tubes are much closer to the skin and do not require a major surgery. Also, these tubes can be accessed easily and be done under local anesthesia.

Women undergone tubectomy may develop bladder infections and abnormal bleeding. Some may have post-tubal sterilization syndrome. This includes irregular and painful periods, mid-cycle bleeding or no periods at all. Women who get pregnant after the reversal surgery have more chances of ectopic pregnancy.

 

Advantages:

  • Immediately effective method of contraception
  • Permanent birth control
  • It is cost-effective in long run
  • Allows sexual spontaneity as well
  • Does not require regular attention

Disadvantages:

  • Does not protect against Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Requires major surgery
  • There are complications associated with the surgery
  • May not be reversible in some cases
  • It is more complicated than male sterilization

Tubal ligation is permanent sterilization and one has to be mentally prepared before making a decision. A woman undergoing tubectomy is susceptible to have more complications since it is considered to be a major abdominal surgery. So one has to think wisely and consult a doctor before making a decision.

VASECTOMY:

A vasectomy is a surgical procedure that is considered as a permanent birth control method. It is solely meant for men and makes him permanently unable to get a woman pregnant. It prevents the release of sperms when the man ejaculates. This procedure involves cutting or blocking the two tubes called as vas deferens. This makes it impossible for the sperm to enter the semen.

How is vasectomy performed?

During a vasectomy:

  • The testicles and scrotum are shaved and cleaned with antiseptic.
  • You will be given an oral or IV medicine that makes you sleep. So that you will not feel the pain.

The surgical procedure takes about one hour and you will be provided a local anesthesia to numb your scrotum. Once the area is numbed, the doctor makes a small hole on one side of the scrotum and pulls the vas deferens on the other side. The hole made is very small in size so that it heals by itself without stitches. A small portion of the vas deferens is removed and is sealed with clamps. This prevents the sperms from entering into the semen which then ejaculated through the penis. The testicles produce sperms continuously but it is reabsorbed by the body. The eggs cannot be fertilized if there are no sperms in the semen. The doctor then performs the same thing on the other side.

No-scalpel vasectomy is a technique that uses small clamps with pointed ends instead of a scalpel. These clamps are used to cut open the skin of the scrotum. This method is more beneficial as it causes less bleeding, only a small hole is made that heals by itself without stitches, and has fewer complications. This method is as effective as traditional vasectomy.

Vasclip implant procedure: In this procedure, a device called vasclip is used to lock the vas deferens. In this technique, the vas deferens is not cut which reduces the pain and complications of the surgery. However, studies show that clipping is not that effective compared to other methods of sealing the vas deferens.

How effective is vasectomy?    

It is the safest and effective method of birth control. About 1 or 2 out of 1000 people might give rise to pregnancy after vasectomy.

Can a vasectomy be reversed?

Some vasectomies can be reversed but the surgery is very difficult and is more expensive. So, one should not undergo vasectomy unless he is sure not to have children in the future.

After the surgery;

  Most men will return to the doctor to have a sperm count check but these days there is also home test available. A vasectomy will not interfere with the sex factor, ability to have an erection, sensation of orgasm, etc. one may have mild itching in the testicles during sexual intercourse for few months after the surgery.

Possible risks of the surgery: The complications are very minimal. It includes

  • Bleeding under the skin which may cause swelling
  • Infection at the site of the incision. In rare cases, the infection may enter into the scrotum
  • Inflammation of the tubes that move the sperms from the testicles

 Advantages:

  • It is a permanent method of birth control
  • It is safer, cheaper and also has fewer complications
  • It is only a one-time cost and is usually covered with medical insurance

Disadvantages:

  • It cannot prevent sexually transmitted diseases.
  • There are complications associated with the surgery
  • May not be reversible in some cases.

Vasectomy reversal is possible but is very difficult and expensive. The results of reversal are not guaranteed at all. So before one makes a decision, you will have to think wisely about the risks and complications of vasectomy as well as the benefits. You may also consult your doctor for a second opinion. So far there are no new methods with relatively lesser side effects and risks for male sterilization.

What are the natural methods of contraception?

Natural methods are typically very inexpensive compared to other methods of birth control unless a woman chooses to purchase ovulation test kits.

Advantages of natural birth control

  • A woman does not need to take medication or use hormonal manipulation.
  • No procedures or fittings by a physician are required.

Disadvantages of natural birth control include

  • It can be difficult to estimate or know precisely when a woman is fertile, allowing increased chances for unplanned conception.
  • Natural methods are not as effective as some forms of contraception.
  • Ovulation test kits are used by some couples using natural methods of contraception, and the cost of these kits is another potential disadvantage.
  • Being unable to have intercourse at certain times of the month is a disadvantage for some women.

Calendar rhythm method:

The calendar rhythm method to avoid pregnancy relies upon calculating a woman’s fertile period on the calendar. Based upon her 12 previous menstrual cycles, a woman subtracts l8 days from her shortest menstrual cycle to determine her first fertile day, and 11 days from her longest menstrual cycle to determine her last fertile day. She can then calculate the total number of days during which she may ovulate. If a woman’s menstrual cycles are quite irregular from month to month, there will be a greater number of days during which she might become pregnant.

The calendar method is only about 80% effective in preventing pregnancy and when used alone, it is considered outdated and ineffective.

Basal body temperature method:

 

The basal body temperature (BBT) method is based on the fact that a woman’s temperature drops 12 to 24 hours before an egg is released from her ovary and then increases again once the egg has been released. Unfortunately, this temperature difference is not very large. It is less than 1 degree F (about a half degree C) when the body is at rest.

The basal body temperature method requires that a woman takes her temperature every morning before she gets out of bed. A special thermometer that is more accurate and sensitive than a typical oral thermometer must be used, and the daily temperature variations carefully noted. This must be done every month. Online calculators are available to help a woman chart her basal body temperature.

To use the basal body temperature as a birth control method, a woman should refrain from having sexual intercourse from the time her temperature drops until at least 48 to72 hours after her temperature increases again.

Mucus inspection method:

The mucus inspection method depends on the presence or absence of a particular type of cervical mucus that a woman produces in response to estrogen. A woman will generate larger amounts of more watery mucus than usual (like raw egg white) just before the release of an egg from her ovary. This so-called egg-white cervical mucus (EWCM) stretches for up to an inch when pulled apart. A woman can learn to recognize differences in the quantity and quality of her cervical mucus by examining its appearance on her underwear, pads, and toilet tissue; or she may gently remove a sample of mucus from the vaginal opening using two fingers.

She may choose to have intercourse between the time of her last menstrual period and the time of change in the cervical mucus. During this period, it is recommended that she have sexual intercourse only every other day because the presence of seminal fluid makes it more difficult to determine the nature of her cervical mucus. If the woman does not wish to become pregnant, she should not have sexual intercourse at all for 3 to 4 days after she notices the change in her cervical mucus.

To in detail about other types of contraception or to know which type suits you the best, log on to Free Doctor Helpline or call us at +918010555444.

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Hypertension: Causes, treatment and home remedies

Hypertension, commonly called ad high blood pressure is a medical condition in which the force of the blood against the artery walls is high enough that it can eventually result in heart diseases. The blood pressure is determined by both that amount of blood your pumps and also the resistance of the blood to flow through the arteries. A high blood pressure results when your heart pumps more blood and your arteries are even narrower.

One can have high blood pressure for years even without any symptoms. Fortunately, high blood pressure can be easily detected and can be controlled with medications.

Symptoms:

Most people suffering from high blood pressure will have no signs or symptoms. A few people may experience severe headaches, nosebleeds, and shortness of breath. These conditions are not specific signs or symptoms and they are not noticed until hypertension has reached the life-threatening stage.

So it is advised to have a regular check of your blood pressure reading. It becomes a part of your routine appointments. People above 40 years should have regular health check-ups. If you can’t afford one often you may book an appointment with one of our doctors available on our website to provide you free services.

So what causes hypertension?

Hypertension is of two types:

  • ¨ Primary hypertension
  • ¨ Secondary hypertension

For many people, there will not be any identifiable cause for hypertension. It might just have developed over many years. This type of hypertension is called as Primary hypertension.

Secondary hypertension occurs as a result of any underlying factor which tends to appear suddenly and cause higher blood pressure. The various conditions that can lead to Secondary hypertension include:

  • Thyroid problems
  • Kidney problems
  • Obstructive sleep apnea
  • Adrenal gland tumors
  • Chronic alcohol use
  • Defects in blood vessels
  • Certain medications such as birth control pills

Risk factors:

Hypertension has many risk factors associated with it. It includes:

  • Age: men have a greater risk of high blood pressure than women. Men develop hypertension at age of 45 whereas women of the age 65 and above are only at risk.
  • Race: African- Americans have a greater risk of high blood pressure than the whites. They may have serious complications such as heart attack, stroke, etc
  • Family history: it may be carried in the gene of a person. If anyone in the family has suffered high blood pressure then the next generation is vulnerable to the same.
  • Obese or overweight: the more you weigh the more you need to supply blood, oxygen and other nutrients to the tissues. Thus the volume of blood that circulates through your heart increases thereby exerting more pressure on the artery walls.
  • Tobacco consumption: not only smoking even chewing tobacco can cause hypertension because the chemicals in tobacco can adversely affect the artery walls. This causes the arteries to narrow increasing your blood pressure.
  • Alcoholism: long-term consumption of alcohol will also result in hypertension.
  • Nutrients quantity: too much of sodium (salt) in the diet will cause your body to retain fluid which increases blood pressure. Potassium helps to balance the sodium levels in the body. If you consume very little potassium then it will increase the sodium retained in the body. Very little Vitamin D in the diet can also cause hypertension as this will affect the enzymes produced by the kidneys.
  • Stress: high levels of stress can cause a temporary increase in blood pressure. Do exercise regularly and engage yourself in more physical activities.

Complications:

The excessive pressure on your artery walls can result in other complications such as,

  • Heart failure
  • Heart attack
  • Stroke
  • Weakened and narrowed blood vessels in kidneys
  • Thickened or narrowed blood vessels in eye
  • Trouble in memory or understanding

Treatments and diagnoses:

To measure your blood pressure, your doctor or a specialist will usually place an inflatable arm cuff around your arm and measure your blood pressure using a pressure-measuring gauge.

The blood pressure readings have two numbers: the upper number called the systolic pressure measures the pressure when your heart beats. The lower number called diastolic pressure measures the pressure between the beat.

The blood pressure measurements fall into 4 categories:

  • Normal blood pressure: you have a normal blood pressure if it shows 120/80
  • Pre-hypertension: if the systolic pressure readings range from 120-139 mm of Hg and if the diastolic pressure readings measure 80-89 mm of Hg then it results in pre-hypertension. It may get worse over time.
  • Stage 1 hypertension: if the blood pressure reading ranges from 140-159 mm of Hg and 90-99 mm of Hg, it is called stage 1 hypertension.
  • Stage 2 hypertension: it is a more severe case where the systolic pressure is 160 mm of Hg and above and the diastolic pressure is 100 mm of Hg and above.

Lifestyle and home remedies:

Changes in lifestyle and food habits will help you survive better through hypertension. The following changes have to be brought about:

  • Healthy eating habits
  • Reduce salt in your diet
  • Maintain healthy weight
  • More physical activity
  • Limit alcohol consumption
  • Quit smoking
  • Manage stress
  • Practice relaxation or slow and deep breathing

Following these will surely help you survive better through hypertension. You may contact best cardiologist on phone call or WhatsApp at Free Doctor Helpline to know further about the treatment options for hypertension.

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2 years ago Health , LifeStyle

Intra-uterine device

An intra-uterine device (IUD) is a small T-shaped birth control device which is usually made of plastic and wrapped with copper or hormones. This device is inserted into the women’s uterus to prevent pregnancy. A plastic string is tied to the end of the IUD that hangs down the vagina through the cervix. One can check if the IUD is in place by feeling this string. This string is also used by the doctors to remove the IUD.

TYPES OD IUDs:

There are 2 types of IUDs that are usually preferred. They are:

  • ¨ Hormonal IUD
  • ¨ Copper IUD

The hormonal IUD releases a form of progestin hormone called as levonorgestrel. This type of IUD is found to be the most effective form of contraception than the copper IUDs. They can prevent pregnancy for 3 to 5 years.

The copper IUD is the most commonly used IUD. A copper wire is wound around the stem of the T-shaped device. This can prevent pregnancy for 10 years.

Insertion & working of IUDs:

The insertion of IUD into the uterus is done with help of a specialized doctor. An IUD can be inserted anytime into a women’s body provided she is not pregnant or have a pelvic infection. The insertion procedure takes only a few minutes and sometimes an anesthetic may be given in the area around the cervix.

The main function of the IUD is to prevent the fertilization of the egg by killing or damaging the sperms. The hormonal IUD prevents the fertilization of the egg by killing or damaging the sperms. It makes the mucus in the cervix thick and sticky so that the sperm can’t get through the uterus. It also weakens the uterine lining so that it becomes a poor place for the fertilized egg to implant and grow. The hormone in this IUD also reduces the menstrual cramping and bleeding.

Copper is toxic to the sperm. The copper enables the fallopian tube and uterus to produce a fluid that consists of copper ions, enzymes, white blood cells and prostaglandins that kill the sperms.

What to expect after the treatment and follow-up procedure:

One may experience mild cramping or bleeding after the insertion of IUD. You are not expected to have sex within 24 hours of insertion. You should have a follow-up with your doctor after 4 to 6 weeks of the insertion. Ensure to check the string of the IUD after every period. To do this, insert your finger into the vagina and feel for the plastic string coming out of the cervix. If you cannot feel the string then it doesn’t mean that your IUD has expelled. Sometimes it is difficult to feel the string. There are chances that the string has been pulled up by the cervical canal.

When can it be done?

Women can undergo an IUD if she fits into one of the below categories;

  • Do not have a pelvic infection at the time of insertion
  • If a woman is breastfeeding
  • If she is not prone to sexually transmitted diseases
  • If she do not want to use birth control pills
  • If she prefers a long-acting method of birth control

Advantages of IUDs:

The advantages of IUDs include:

  • ¨ It is cost-efficient
  • ¨ Less time-consuming method of contraception
  • ¨ Lowers risk of ectopic pregnancy
  • ¨ Reduces menstrual bleeding and cramps by 90%
  • ¨ It may prevent endometrial cancer
  • ¨ Do not cause weight gain

RISKS FACTORS:

Menstrual problems: the hormonal IUD reduces menstrual cramps and bleeding whereas the copper IUD increases menstrual cramps and bleeding. Some may also experience spotting between the periods.

Perforation: one out of 1000 women will strike in perforation. It almost occurs during insertion. The IUD should be removed if the uterus perforate.

Expulsion: about 1 out of 100 women may experience expulsion. The IUD may be expelled out of the vagina.

Disadvantages of IUDs:

  • The hormonal IUD may give rise to non-cancerous growth such as ovarian cysts.
  • It may cause hormonal side effects as that caused by oral contraception.
  • The side effects include breast tenderness, mood swings, headaches, and acne.

You can chat with a gynaecologist online about the different contraceptive methods available at freedoctorhelpline.

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3 years ago FirstAidPlus , Health

Tips to prevent Heart Disease in Women

Heart Disease / Cardiovascular Disease are a class of diseases that affects the heart and blood vessels many of which are related to a process called Atherosclerosis. Heart Diseases is the number one killer of women, learn how to protect yourself or someone you love.

  1. Start Healthy Habit now –

Research indicates that women who lead a healthy lifestyle before the age of 50 have a better chance of avoiding heart disease and the conditions that increase the risk of it – such as diabetes and hypertension.

 

  1. Get your Checkup –

Some factors that increase your risk for heart disease – including high cholesterol – have no symptoms. Get regular checkups that include a blood cholesterol test. Everyone should have their cholesterol checked annually starting at age 20.

 

  1. Don’t Smoke –

Smoking can increase your risk of cardiovascular disease by two to four times.

 

  1. Drink responsibly –

Drinking alcohol in moderation – particularly wise – can reduce your risk of dying from heart disease by 25%. For women, moderation means just one drink per day.

 

  1. Brush your Teeth –

The bacteria that grow in your mouth and cause gum disease may double the risk for a heart attack. Regular brushing and flossing can sweeten your breath and improve your health.

 

  1. Have Sex, but be safe –

Research suggests that people who have sex at least twice a week are less likely to develop heart disease. But proceed with caution and condom. A recent study found a tie between Human Papillomavirus Infection (HPV) – a sexually transmitted infection – and heart disease.

 

  1. Choose your Birth Control wisely –

Birth Control Pills can increase your risk of a heart attack and blood clots. Some types of the pill have been shown to increase the risk of blood clots by up to 65% over other formulas, especially in women who have a high BMI or those who smoke.

 

  1. Skip the Soda –

Studies have shown that women who drink two or more sugar – sweetened beverages such as soda per day have a higher risk of heart disease.

 

  1. Relax –

Prolonged exposure to the stress hormone cortisol can damage your arterial linings, making it harder for your heart to do its job.

 

  1. Stay Active –

Your heart needs regular workouts in order to keep it healthy, even if you have a healthy BMI. As little as 30 minutes of moderate activity per day can reduce your risk for heart disease.

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