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2 years ago Medical

Hepatitis C

About Hepatitis C

Hepatitis is defined as the inflammation of the liver. The vital organ plays an important role in the processing of food, enzyme secretion, residual cleaning and metabolism of medicines. Any damage or inflammation of the liver affects the body functions, affecting the body functions.  Heavy alcohol toxins, strong medications and autoimmune conditions cause hepatitis C.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) can lead to both acute and chronic infection. Acute HCV infection is usually asymptomatic and is only very rarely associated with the life-threatening disease.

Many people are not aware of acute conditions, which further develop into the chronic illness, causing severe problems like liver cancer, liver failure.

 

Transmission:

Hepatitis C is a blood prone virus. The common modes of transmission are:

  • Injecting drug through similar syringes
  • using again or insufficient sterilization of medical equipment, like syringes, needles in primary healthcare centres
  • Transfusion of unscreened blood and blood products
  • Clotting factors of unscreened value
  • Sexually transmitted from mother to child from womb, only if the mother is infected.

Risk groups for hepatitis C:

  • Patients undergoing dialysis for longer term
  • Healthcare co-workers who have blood exposure like needle stick to an infected person on their job
  • Children born to HCV-infected mother
  • People having multiple sex partners
  • Received a blood from an already suffering HCV patient

The symptoms are:

  • Fatigue Yellow skin and eyes (jaundice)
  • Loss of appetite
  • Dark-colored urine
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Joint Pain
  • Abdominal pain
  • Clay-colored stool

These symptoms may appear about 6 to 8 weeks after exposure, but this time period can vary among individuals

HCV infection is diagnosed in 2 steps:

  1. Screening meant for anti-HCV antibodies with a serological test that identifies people who have been infected by way of the virus.
  2. If the test is positive for anti-HCV antibodies, a nucleic acid test for HCV ribonucleic acid (RNA) is essential to authenticate chronic contamination

 

Prevention

There is no vaccine for hepatitis C, consequently, prevention of HCV infection depends upon reducing the risk of exposure to the virus in health-care settings and in higher risk populations like, individuals who inject drugs, and throughout sexual contact.

Primary prevention measures include:

  • Hand hygiene: with surgical hand preparation, hand washing and use of gloves;
  • Safe and proper use of health care injections;
  • protected handling and discarding of surgical sharps and waste;
  • Comprehensive harm-reduction services to individuals who inject drugs as well as sterile injecting equipment;
  • Testing and analysis of donated blood for hepatitis B and C (and for HIV and syphilis);
  • Comprehensive training of health personnel
  • Encouragement of the correct and regular use of condoms.

 

Secondary prevention measures include:

  • Patient-centric education and counselling on options for care and treatment;
  • Complete immunization with the hepatitis A and B vaccines to avert co-infection from these hepatitis viruses and to shield their liver;
  • Early and suitable medical management together with antiviral therapy
  • Standard monitoring for near the beginning diagnosis of chronic liver disease.

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3 years ago FirstAidPlus , Liver , Medical

What is Hepatitis ?

Hepatitis is a term that refers to inflammation of the liver.It’s commonly because of a viral infection, however there are different feasible reasons of hepatitis. those include autoimmune hepatitis and hepatitis that happens as a secondary reaction of medicinal drugs, tablets, toxins, and alcohol. Autoimmune hepatitis is a disorder that happens while your body makes antibodies in against to your liver cells.

Your liver performs many critical functions that affect metabolism for the duration of your body, including:

  • Excretion of bilirubin (a product of broken-down Red blood cells), cholesterol, hormones, and medicine
  • Breakdown of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
  • Synthesis of clotting factors
  • Activation of enzymes, which can be specialized proteins essential to body features
  • Bile production, which is crucial to digestion
  • Storage of glycogen (a form of sugar), minerals, and vitamins (A, D, E, and okay)
  • Filtering of toxins from your body
  • Synthesis of blood proteins, along with albumin

According to “Global Burden of diseases study 2015” worldwide around 600 million people are affected from this diseases and according to central disease control and prevention (CDC) about 5million people in America are affected from this disease. And worldwide there are also many others who still don’t know that they have hepatitis.

It’s treatment depends on its type and Treatment vary depending on which type of hepatitis you affected. We can prevent some form of hepatitis by precautions and vaccination.

Hepatitis Viral in the world

Hepatitis Viral in the world

Type of Hepatitis 

Hepatitis is a term that refers to inflammation of the liver. Among the three most common strains of viral hepatitis in the India – Hepatitis A, B & C – each virus has similar symptoms. However, strains differ by the mode of transmission and how the specific virus affects the liver. It can be caused by – Genetic Diseases, Medications (including over the counter), Alcohol and Hepatitis Viruses.

Hepatitis A

Modes of Transmission –

Ingestion of fecal matter, even in microscopic amounts, from :

  1. Close person – to – person contact with a Hepatitis A – infected person.
  2. Sexual contact with a Hep. – A infected person.
  3. Contaminated food or drinks.
  4. Contaminated drug paraphernalia (works).

Risk Activities –

  1. Travel to countries where Hep. – A is common.
  2. Sexual contact with a Hep. – A infected person.
  3. Use of illegal drugs (injection or non – injection).
  4. Living with a clotting factor disorder.

Prevention Methods –

  1. Hepatitis A vaccination.
  2. Immune globulin.
  3. Proper hand washing with soap after the use of toilets and changing diapers, and before preparing and eating food.

Treatment Option –

  1. Provides supportive treatments (for e.g. bed rest).
  2. No Hep. – A specific medications are available.

 

Hepatitis B

Modes of Transmission –

Contact with infectious blood, semen and other bodily fluids, primarily through :

  1. Birth from a Hepatitis – B infected mother.
  2. Sexual contact with a Hep. – B infected person.
  3. Sharing needles, syringes or drug paraphernalia (works).
  4. Needle sticks or sharp instrument injuries.

Less commonly through :

  1. Tattooing / body piercing.

Risk Activities –

  1. Birth from a Hep. – B infected mother.
  2. Sexual contact with a Hep. – B infected person.
  3. Multiple sexual partners.
  4. Living with a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD).
  5. Injection drug use.
  6. Living with a Hep. – B infected person.
  7. Occupational exposure to blood.
  8. Long term hemodialysis.
  9. Living or working in a setting that houses developmentally disabled individuals.

Prevention Methods –

  1. Hep. B vaccination.
  2. Immune globulin.
  3. Hep. B screening during each pregnancy.
  4. For infants born to Hep. – B infected mothers, immune globulin dosage and vaccine within 12 hours of birth.
  5. Use of condoms for sex.
  6. Not sharing personal care items (e.g. razors, toothbrushes).
  7. Not sharing needles, syringes or drug paraphernalia (works).
  8. Ensure use of sterile equipment for any tattoo or body piercing.
  9. Proper infection control in health care settings and public safety work.

Treatment Options –

  1. For acute Hep. B, provide supportive treatment.
  2. For chronic Hep. B, provide regular monitoring for signs of liver disease progression and consider antiviral medication.

Read more >> Hepatitis B

 

Hepatitis C

Modes of Transmission –

Contact with infectious blood, primarily through :

  1. Sharing needles, syringes or drug paraphernalia (works).

Less commonly through :

  1. Sexual contact with a Hepatitis C infected person.
  2. Birth from a Hep. C infected mother.
  3. Needles stick or sharp instrument injuries.
  4. Tattooing / body piercing.

Risk Activities –

  1. Current or past injection drug use.
  2. Receipt of blood or organs prior to July 1992.
  3. Receipt of clotting factor concentrates before 1987.
  4. Long term hemodialysis.
  5. Occupational exposure to blood.
  6. Birth from a Hep. C infected mother.

Prevention Methods –

  1. Not sharing needles, syringes or drug paraphernalia (works).
  2. Use of condom for sex.
  3. Not sharing personal care items (e.g. razors, toothbrushes) ensure use of sterile equipment for any tattoo or body piercing.
  4. Proper infection control in health care settings and public safety work.

Treatment Options –

  1. For acute Hepatitis C, provide supportive treatment and consider antiviral medication.
  2. For chronic Hep. C, provide regular monitoring for signs of liver disease progression and consider antiviral medication.

read more >> hepatitis C 

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2 years ago Medical

Liver cancer

Cancer begins when the healthy body cells change and grow out of control, from a tumour. This tumour can be both benign and malignant. 80% of primary liver cancer is hepatocellular carcinoma. the other types of cancer include bile duct cancer, and angiosarcoma, defined as the cancer of the blood cells in the liver. Hepatocellular carcinoma begins in hepatocytes, the main functional cells of the liver.

A rare type of liver cancer occurring in young patients is the fibrolamellar carcinoma, grows more invasively, characterized by a prominent central scar, diagnosed by imaging techniques.

The types include:

  • Tumour developing in the liver, but have originated from another organ like colon, stomach, ovary, they are called liver metastasis or secondary liver cancers
  • Cancers starting in the blood cells of the liver are called angiosarcomas and hemangiosarcomas
  • Cancer originating in the bile duct of the liver are called cholangiocarcinomas
  • Tumours called hepatoblastomas occurs majorly in infants and children.

The median age of liver cancer in Asia and Africa is 40-50 years.

CAUSE OF LIVER CANCER

Liver cirrhosis is related as the primary reason for liver cancer, as after the liver is affected by cirrhosis, the tissue of the liver is lowly modified at the expense of normal liver cells which consists more of fibrous and scar tissue, hence increasing the probability of tumour growth.

The risk factors involved in liver cancer are :

  1. Chronic infection with the hepatitis-B virus(HBV) or hepatitis-C virus (HCV): chronic infection when the virus remains in the blood for more than 6 months, causing the decline in the functioning of the liver cells. It affects 50% of the world population for cancer of the liver.

Hepatitis B infection causes liver cancer immediately without cirrhosis, increasing the risk up to 100 fold, while HCV increases the risk up to 17 fold.

  1. Long-term alcohol abuse: leading cause of liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. Alcohol intake when suffering from hepatitis increases even more.
  2. Inherited liver conditions: conditions like haemochromatosis which is a higher absorption of iron from food, deposits in every organ or alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency a protein depositing in every part abnormally, increases the risk of liver cirrhosis and cancer.
  3. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, affect the liver like cirrhosis
  4. Medical conditions like autoimmune hepatitis, intrahepatic biliary inflammations and Wilsons disease are the serious factors affecting liver leading to cancer,
  5. Gender: live cancer is 4-8 times common in men than women
  6. Toxic agents exposure: anabolic steroids, increases the risk of hepatocellular adenoma. Intake of aflatoxin-contaminated food, causes DNA mutations in liver DNA cells, leading to cancer cells.

DIAGNOSIS OF LIVER CANCER

  • Ultrasound tests to detect nodules, visible on imaging, determine the type of a tumour based on size.
  • Blood test: for alfa-fetoprotein detection, higher levels indicate last stage liver disease.
  • Biopsy: to determine the type of benign or cancerous liver cells.

SYMPTOMS OF LIVER CANCER

  • Sudden weight loss
  • Fatigue
  • Loss of appetite after small meal
  • Enlarger liver felt as a mass under the ribs on right side
  • Enlarged spleen, mass felt on the left side under ribs
  • Yellowing of skin and eyes-jaundice
  • Swelling and fluid buildup in the abdomen
  • Pain in the abdomen, near the right shoulder blade

TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR LIVER CANCER

  • Resection of a tumour by surgery
  • Liver transplantation
  • Local ablation methods

 

 

3 years ago

Answer for Jaundice

Tomato juice: One glass of tomato juice, mixed with a pinch of salt and pepper, taken on empty stomach in the morning is a very effective home cure for jaundice.
Radish leaves: Radish leaves contain compounds which induces appetite and regularises the bowel movements. Take some radish leaves and extract juice from it, with the help of a sieve. Drink about half a litre of the extracted juice daily, in about ten days the patient should get relief from the disease.
Papaya leaves: Add one tablespoon of honey to one teaspoon of papaya leaves paste. Eat this regularly for about one or two weeks. This is a very effective home cure for jaundice.
Sugarcane: The properties in sugarcane helps in proper digestion and proper liver functioning, thereby helping the patient to recover quickly from jaundice. Take a glass of sugarcane juice and add some lime juice to this. Drink this juice twice daily for better results. Ensure to clean sugarcane properly before extracting juice from it.
Basil leaves: Take   about 10-15 basil leaves and make a paste of it. Add half a glass of freshly prepared radish juice to it. Drink this daily for about two to three weeks for better results.
Gooseberry: Gooseberry is rich in vitamin C and is a very useful in alleviating the symptoms of  jaundice.
Barley: Boil  a cup of barley water in about three litres of water and allow it to simmer for about three hours. Drink this water as frequently as possible throughout the day  for treatment of jaundice.
Lemon: The anti inflammatory property in lemon helps in treating jaundice. Lemon also unblocks the bile ducts , thereby making it the most effective home remedy for jaundice.  Squeeze the juice of 2  lemons and add it to a glass of water. Drink this minimum thrice a day , as it protects the liver cells from damage.
Pigeon peas leaves: Extract juice from pigeon pea leaves by crushing them and take at least 60ml of this juice daily  for treating jaundice. The leguminous beans of these are also very nutritive and can be added in the diet.
 
Almonds: Take about 8 kernels of almonds, two dates and five cardamoms and soak them in water.  Leave it overnight. In the morning, remove the skins and make a paste of it. Add some sugar and butter. Take this mixture several times a day.
Turmeric: Take a glass of warm water and add a pinch of turmeric to it. Mix well and drink this three or four times a day.
Snake gourd leaves: Take about 7-10 leaves and boil it in a cup of water and allow it to cool. Take 10-15 coriander seeds and boil it in half a litre of water. Mix it with the previously prepared decoction. Drink at least thrice a day for effective cure of jaundice.
Indian aloe Vera leaves: Take the pulp of the leaves of Indian aloe vera and mix it with black salt and ginger. Take this every morning for about ten days.
Beetroot and lemon: Take one cup of beetroot juice and mix with equal quantity of lemon juice and drink this   regularly for a few days for effective results.
Chicory plant: All parts of chicory plant is useful in curing  liver problems. The flowers, seeds and roots are the more common parts used. The juice of chicory help treating the  enlargement of spleen,  sluggishness of the liver  and it also promotes  healthy secretion of the bile .
Jaundice berry: Make a juice of the bark of jaundice berry and take a teaspoon  of this several times  a day  , daily.
Chamomile: Tea made of chamomile is very effective cure for jaundice and should be  at least once a day for several weeks and can be continued after cure of jaundice as a preventive measure.
Buttermilk: Take buttermilk and add roasted alum and add some black pepper and mix well and drink at least thrice a day for better results.
Banana: Crush ripe banana and add some honey and take this at least twice a day for better results.
Carrot juice: Make fresh carrot juice and drink several times a day for effective cure of jaundice and it can be included in the diet also.
Bitter luffa: Squeeze and pound bitter luffa , to extract its juice . place the juice in the palm of the hand and draw it through the nostrils. Yellow liquid will flow out the nostrils as a result of this .when the toxic matter is evacuated in considerable amount the patient will feel relieved. Seeds of bitter luffa can also be used for the same purpose.
Bael leaves: Take baels leaves and grind to make a powder. Mix it to a glass of water. Drink this once a day for effective cure of jaundice.
JAUNDICE: PREVENTIVE MEASURES
Jaundice that is caused by alcohol related liver disorder or by viral hepatitis can be prevented.
People suffering from alcoholism can prevent or reduce the risk of Jaundice by avoiding alochol. Jaundice caused by hepatitis A and B can be prevented by taking vaccination. (Hepatitis C has no vaccination as yet).
Other Jaundice underlying diseases like cirrhosis, thalassemia, hepatitis A, cholestasis are inherited or autoimmune disorders can not be prevented.
 
JAUNDICE: FOODS TO AVOID

  • Avoid spicy and fried foods.
  • Avoid junk and carbohydrate rich foods as liver needs to produce more bile to digest these foods and that may aggravate the condition.
  • Avoid alcohol, coffee and tea. Drink boiled water and avoid non-pasteurized milk.
  • Pulses and legumes should be avoided.

 
OTHER DIETARY RECCOMENDATIONS

  • Increase intake of foods rich in calcium and other minerals like iron and magnesium.
  • Vegetables and fruits should be taken in raw or steamed form.
  • Bitter gourd and drumsticks are very beneficial for jaundice patients.
  • Fruit juice fast for about one week is very effective for the patient.

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